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This legislation may be termed as one of the rarest legislations in the Indian Legal History which provides for setting out the practical regime of ‘Right to Information’ for Citizens to secure access to information under the control of public authorities and in order to promote transparency & accountability in the working of every public authority, the constitution of a Central Information Commission and State Information Commissions and for matters connected therewith or incidental thereto.
This Legislation will prove to be a ‘Landmark’, since it is enacted NOT for the people to follow but for the Government to follow.
Through this legislation, the Government has made an attempt to administer itself, be answerable to the people & penalize itself for lacking in providing the required information and regain people’s lost confidence in the bureaucratic system and setup.
Extent and Commencement:
This Act extends to the whole of India except the State of Jammu and Kashmir. This Act of Parliament received the assent of the President of India on the 15th June, 2005.
Some Important Definitions:
1. Information [Section 2(f)]:
Information means any material in any form, including records, documents, memos, e-mails, opinions, advices, press releases, circulars, orders, logbooks, contracts, reports, papers, samples, models, data material held in any electronic form and information relating to any private body which can be accessed by a public authority under any other law for the time being in force.
2. Record [Section 2(i)]:
(a) any document, manuscript and file;
(b) any microfilm, microfiche and facsimile copy of a document;
(c) any reproduction of image or images embodied in such microfilm
(whether enlarged or not)
(d) any other material produced by a computer or any other device.
3. Right to Information [Section 2(j)]:
Right to Information means the right to information accessible under this Act which is held by or under the control of any public authority and includes the right to –
(i) inspection of work, documents, records;
(ii) taking notes, extracts or certified copies of documents or records;
(iii) taking certified samples of material;
(iv) obtaining information in the form of diskettes, floppies, tapes, video cassettes or in any other electronic mode or through printouts where such information is stored in a computer or in any other device.
4. Public Authority [Section 2(h)]:
Public Authority means any authority or body or institution of self- government established or constituted-
(a) by or under the Constitution;
(b) by any other law made by Parliament;
(c) by any other law made by State Legislature;
(d) by notification issued or order made by the appropriate Government,
and includes any-
(i) body owned, controlled or substantially financed;
(ii) non-Government organisation substantially financed, directly or indirectly by funds provided by the appropriate Government;
Exemption from disclosure of information [Section 8]:
Like any other legislation, this Act also provides for exemptions to the Government from disclosure of information regarding information – which would cause a breach of privilege of Parliament or the State Legislature / harm the competitive position of a third party / endanger the life or physical safety of any person / impede the process of investigation or apprehension or prosecution of offenders / weaken confidence of the Foreign Government / Disclose the Records of deliberations of the Council of Ministers, Secretaries and other Officers / relates to personal information which has no relationship to any public activity or interest, or which would cause unwarranted invasion of the privacy of the individual unless the Central Public Information Officer or the State Public Information Officer or the appellate authority, as the case may be, is satisfied that the larger public interest justifies the disclosure of such information / involve infringement of copyright.
IMPACT: To hide or avoid giving the required information demanded, the Officers of the concerned Public Authorities may resort to take advantage of these Exemptions. Hence it may be necessary for the ‘Information Seeker’ to be clear in his mind about the exact interpretation of the provisions and exemptions so that he may not be taken for a ride by the officials and can claim his Right to information rightfully.
Administration of the Act [Section 12]:
A body to be known as the ‘Central Information Commission’ is constituted to exercise the powers conferred on, and to perform the functions assigned to, it under this Act. The Central Information Commission shall consist of- The Chief Information Commissioner and such number of Central Information Commissioners as may be deemed necessary.
Every State Government shall constitute a body to be known as the(name of the State) Information Commission to exercise the powers conferred on, and to perform the functions assigned to, it under this Act. The State Information Commission shall consist of- The State Chief Information Commissioner and such number of State Information Commissioners as may be deemed necessary.
The Central Information Commission or State Information Commission shall, while inquiring into any matter under this section, have the same powers as are vested in a civil court while trying a suit under the Code of Civil Procedure, 1908.
Every public authority shall designate as many officers as the Central Public Information Officers or State Public Information Officers, as the case may be, in all administrative units or offices under it as may be necessary to provide information to persons requesting for the information under this Act. Every public authority shall designate an officer at each sub-divisional level or other sub-district level as a Central Assistant Public Information Officer or a State Assistant Public Information Officer, as the case may be, to receive the applications for information or appeals under this Act for forwarding the same forthwith to the Central Public Information Officer or the State Public Information Officer or senior officer specified or the Central Information Commission or the State Information Commission, as the case may be.
Timeframes within which the desired information should be made available by the concerned Public Authority:
A person who desires to obtain any information shall make a request in writing or through electronic means in English or Hindi or in the official language of the area in which the application is being made, accompanying such fee as may be prescribed, to-
(a) the Central Public Information Officer or State Public Information Officer, as the case may be, of the concerned public authority;
(b) the Central Assistant Public Information Officer or State Assistant Public Information Officer, as the case may be, specifying the particulars of the information sought by him or her.
An applicant making request for information shall not be required to give any reason for requesting the information or any other personal details except those that may be necessary for contacting him.
On receipt of a request the Central Public Information Officer or State Public Information Officer shall as expeditiously as possible, and in any case within Thirty Days of the receipt of the request, either provide the information on payment of such fee as may be prescribed or reject the request for a reason. If the Central Public Information Officer or State Public Information Officer fails to give decision on the request for information within the said period it shall be deemed to have refused the request. The person making request for the information shall be provided the information free of charge where a public authority fails to comply with the time limits specified.
IMPACT: Making requests for information through electronic means may not be easy practically, since not all the Public Authority offices are fully computerized and may not have computer savvy staff. The urban class who may resort to make request through electronic means may get discouraged. Explanations like, ‘Computer error’, ‘Server down’ may be resorted to, for avoiding furnishing of information.
Penalties for not making available the desired information:
If without any reasonable cause, the concerned Officer refuses to receive an application for information or has not furnished information within the time specified or malafidely denied the request for information or knowingly given incorrect, incomplete or misleading information or destroyed information which was the subject of the request or obstructed in any manner in furnishing the information, a penalty of two hundred and fifty rupees each day till application is received or information is furnished, so however, the total amount of such penalty shall not exceed twenty-five thousand rupees shall be imposed and / or disciplinary action against the concerned Officer may be taken. Provided that the Central Public Information Officer or the State Public Information Officer, as the case may be, shall be given a reasonable opportunity of being heard before any penalty is imposed or disciplinary action is taken against him.
The enactment of the Right to Information Act, 2005 makes a noteworthy attempt to streamline the working of the Public Authorities in respect of providing information to the people. The Authorities will require being technology savvy, alert and need to imbibe in them the not before attitude, of being answerable to the citizens. The Public Authorities will now require tightening their belts so as to serve the people and truly contribute to the Information Technology era. As for the citizens, this Act makes them aware of their one of the Constitutional Rights – Right to Information and gives them the opportunity to exercise it in good faith.
Complete Assistance in the preparation for the implementation of the SMR/CR can be obtained from us at Complaince Consultant Where we have experience in the banking sector from 2015/2016.
For years the lemon has sat awkwardly amongst other fruits. As children we knew the lemon tasted bitter, and because of this, we often found ourselves drawn to its peculiar mystique.
In recent years, the lemon has been used to control the spread of the HIV virus, and has been demonstrated in research studies to kill the HIV virus.
Dr Peter Piot of UNAIDS hailed the discovery that the juice of the lemon kills HIV in the test tube, declaring: ” UNAIDS would like to give you (Professor Roger Short and your ‘LemonAIDS’ team) every encouragement to pursue this exciting new lead.”
Keeping the liver healthy is a critical step in the health and recovery of both cancer patients and those with HIV / AIDS.
According to Dr Leo Roy MD, ND [Immune Perspectives], “No disease, especially degenerative diseases including cancer and AIDS, could survive longer than a few weeks in the presence of a healthy liver.”
A recent discovery by those working with HIV / AIDS has found that combining the simple lemon with extra virgin olive oil and blending these together (with the lemon rind and seeds) and a glass and half of spring water, can and does produce amazing results, when drunk on a daily basis.
The lemon and the extra virgin olive oil, when taken together, act as a potent liver and gallbladder flush, detoxifying the liver, lowering biliruben levels, removing heavy metals, increasing the production of bile from the liver, stimulating lymphatic flow, and restoring the pH of your saliva, which in turn helps you to absorb the nutrients from the food you eat.
The liver is truly the master organ of the immune system, producing chemicals to combat viruses (including the HIV virus) and bacteria, supporting phagocytic [immune function], and producing antihistamines to neutralize substances that promote the growth of cancer. When the liver is not functioning properly – and is over-blocked by toxins – the body’s immune system is severely weakened leading to chronic illness. The lemon & extra virgin olive oil drink not only prevents chronic illness, but works to reverse it.
According to Mark Konlee from his paper How to Reverse Immune Dysfunction – “The immune system has two ‘arms’ – the TH1 and TH2 systems. They tend to be connected: when the one is strong, the other is weak, and visa versa. The Lemon / Extra Virgin Olive Oil drink has been reported to balance the two arms of the immune system. This would help in both suppressed immune system and autoimmune conditions (including HIV / AIDS and cancer).”
Restoring pH levels to normal alkaline levels of 7.0 or greater, is of tremendous importance for the cancer patient. Lemons are one of the most alkaline forming foods on the face of the planet, and when consumed on a regular daily basis (especially with the rind and seeds), cause pH levels in the body to rise and become very alkaline, to levels typically above 7.4 or greater, making it difficult for cancer cells to survive because of the amount of oxygen present. The majority of cancer patients have acidic pH levels of below 6.5, meaning that normal cells are not able to respirate or “breathe” properly. This causes cells to mutate and become cancerous. This discovery was made by Nobel Prize winner Dr. Otto Warburg, who discovered that cancer cells only thrive in a low-oxygen state. In this way, the simple lemon can help to fight cancer.
The lemon & extra virgin olive oil drink also helps to lower and restore biliruben levels in those with liver cancer and liver disease. An elevated biliruben level is a key indicator of a damaged liver. Recently a patient of mine with liver cancer, who had a consistently high biliruben level of 36 (disqualifying her from chemotherapy), took for the first time the lemon & extra virgin olive oil drink. She drank her first and only drink on Thursday. Her biliruben levels had been measured 3 days before and were at the usual 36. She was tested on Friday (one day after her first drink) and her biliruben level measured 28, then two days later it was measured, and it was at 22 (to a near normal level)! This ordinarily skeptical woman was gobsmacked!
So the next time you find yourself walking past a lemon tree, consider how the simple lemon can and is beginning to wage the war against two of the world’s most devastating diseases – cancer and HIV / AIDS.
For further information on the Lemon / Extra Virgin Olive Oil Drink and related articles and research on cancer and HIV / AIDS and beating these diseases naturally, go to www.alternative-cancer-care.com
Complete Assistance in the preparation for the implementation of the SMR/CR can be obtained from us at Complaince Consultant Where we have experience in the banking sector from 2015/2016.
Are you looking for a complete body transformation but you aren’t sure what to do for workout and diet? Do you have 12 weeks to commit yourself to something that will change the way you look forever? If you want to turn that pear shape into a V-shape with 6 pack abs I recommend you check out my experience with Chad Waterbury’s 10/10 Transformation.
The first thing I have to say is that I am a big fan of Chad Waterbury. He puts out excellent workout programs with his state of the art theories on muscular development and recovery. He’s been the new guy on the block for the last couple of years but has been gaining notoriety quickly because his programs do something very important. They produce real and noticeable results!
Before I continue let me give you a quick bio from his website so you know this isn’t another run of the mill trainer:
Chad is a neurophysiologist and author.
His training methods are used by a wide range of athletes, bodybuilders, models, and fitness enthusiast.
Chad is the director of strength and conditioning at Rickson Gracie Int. Jiu Jitsu Center in LA.
Chad is a regular contributor to the T-Muscle bodybuilding website.
Chad has a master’s degree in physiology from the University of Arizona.
Chad’s focus there was on the neurophysiology of human movement and performance. This lead him to make radical changes in the way he trains competitive athletes. His workouts are now shorter and faster, producing superior results in strength, power, and muscular development.
His eBook, the 10/10 Transformation, is a remarkable triumph of new muscle technology put to work. It’s designed to have you gain 10 pounds of muscle and lose 10 pounds of fat in 12 weeks. Your body weight will be exactly the same but you will look completely different by shedding a few inches off of your waist and adding 10 pounds of pure muscle to your physique. If you can shrink the waistline while beefing up the upper body you will be amazed at the difference you can make in your appearance.
The 10/10 Transformation has several elements that appealed to me. As a fitness enthusiast I am always looking for a great routine that will give real visible results. Standard routines and diets are just plain boring. The 10/10 mixes everything up with challenge and change throughout. It includes a daily diet, daily workout routine, supplement regime, and tips for success. It is a very easy program to follow but you must be ready to commit yourself to some grueling workouts. The program divides itself into four separate three week programs. Your body will not be able to fully adapt to this which means you will get steady results for the entire 12 weeks. The first three weeks is fat loss, followed by 3 weeks of muscle gain, 3 more weeks of fat loss, and a final 3 weeks of muscle gain to add the finishing touch to your body.
By focusing exclusively on either fat burn or muscle gain during each 3 week period you can maximize your results, keep your body off guard, and keep your mind fresh without getting bored. During the 3 week body fat phases you will do 3 full body workouts during the week which vary the rest, rep, and the load of the weight. I did those on Monday, Wednesday, and Friday. They only take about 35 minutes but you will be in a full sweat and exhausted at the end. These workouts build muscle and burn fat. You do need to have a bit of conditioning under your belt to tackle these workouts because they will kick your butt. The other two days of the week you do a 20 minute HIIT cardio session. Total time spent in the gym is about 3 hours during the entire week. That’s not much time to drop 5 pounds of fat and get stronger at the same time! During my initial 3 weeks I was a bit loose on the diet having 3-4 cheat meals per week rather than the prescribed 2 (yes you get to eat cheat meals, pizza for me!) At the end of the first 3 weeks I lost 1 inch off of my waist while gaining 2 pounds on the scale. I have found that every inch off my waist equates to 4-5 pounds of fat so I lost about 4 pounds of fat and gained 6 pounds of lean body weight. The difference in my physique was dramatic. You might be thinking that is a lot of mass to gain but I started using creating during that 3 weeks and typically my muscle cells volumize and I gain exactly 6-7 pounds once it is in my system so it was right on target. I lost close to 5 pounds and my muscles had more volume from the creatine.
I went right into the muscle building phase which is a nice change of pace. Waterbury uses something very radical called HFT or High Frequency Training. I trained each muscle about 5 times per week. The weight, reps, sets, and rest periods are changed up each workout so it keeps your body guessing and allows the separate pathways in the muscles time for recovery. I gained a stunning 8 pounds in 3 weeks. I was really sore the first week but got used to it. Part of my success was sticking very close to his diet which recommended a heavy amount of BCAA’s during the entire 3 weeks. High protein, supplemented BCAA’s, and rigorous workouts for 3 weeks put slabs of muscle on quickly. There are no cardio workouts during the 3 weeks because the body needs all of it’s time for rest.
After those 6 weeks I already had a big transformation in my body so the book was already well worth the price. I completed the transformation and can tell you it lives up to its name. The initial 3 week fat burning program is so effective that I have used that segment alone 3 more times during the course of the year when I want to drop 5-6 pounds quickly and gain some muscle.
If you’re looking for something that is extremely effective for fat loss and muscle gain then I highly recommend the 10/10 workout. The diet plan is simple to follow and easy enough for someone that doesn’t have any time to cook or prepare meals. It lays out every detail in this 1 simple book and leaves nothing to chance. The other thing I liked was you will now have 4 routines that you can use at anytime. If you want to lose fat you can pull out one of the two fat burning workouts or on the flip side gain muscle with one of the two 3 week muscle gaining routines.
Complete Assistance in the preparation for the implementation of the SMR/CR can be obtained from us at Complaince Consultant Where we have experience in the banking sector from 2015/2016.
The human mind is not easy to control. There are times when we can focus on the task at hand to such a degree that the rest of the world simply melts away. Then there are those moments when the mind goes in a million different directions at once, contrary to our best intentions of focus. Of course, there are also instances when the only thing our mind will focus on is the opposite of what we want to be thinking about!
With NLP training, we can learn to focus when we really need to, when the stakes are high.
First off, let’s highlight a few types of distractions that keep us from concentrating, so we can learn what to avoid. There are two categories of distractions: Internal and External.
* Focusing on the past or the future, as opposed to being present in the moment and making the best out of each situation.
* Negative Self Talk. A few well-timed negative words can be just the thing to get our minds firing off track in a non-productive direction.
* Emotional states like fear and anxiety distract our minds and keep us from reaching or goals.
* Visual Interference (people traffic in your environment, opening doors, bright colors, etc.).
* Audio Interference (music, people talking near you, sounds of traffic, ringing cellphones, etc.).
* Kinesthetic problems like temperature changes, uncomfortable clothing or seating.
* Receiving negative feedback from others.
Many people can focus their peak concentration on a specified goal, but then once that goal is achieved, all concentration goes out the window. How can we achieve sustained mental energy? A large part of this is actually preparation. For instance, when I am preparing for an important event, I start mentally and physically days before hand. I pay special attention to sleeping well, eating a healthy diet, and exercising. The morning of the event, I like to get up early and do meditation and visualization exercises to put my mind a good place.
Apart from these common sense practices, NLP Master Practitioner can help you learn powerful concentration techniques and design an individualized training regime. Some techniques include:
* Removing limits created in the past (NLP Master Practitioner).
* Changing negative self talk into positive self talk (NLP Practitioner + NLP Master Practitioner training).
* Setting anchors on yourself (touch, a word etc), or the capability to step in to a spatial anchor (NLP Practitioner).
* Stepping in to the right perceptual position or new behavior generator (NLP Practitioner).
* Using Visualization Techniques (even a simple STOP sign)
* ‘Switching On’ with TOTE Strategies (NLP Practitioner).
* Model yourself on someone whose excellence you admire (NLP Master Practitioner).
* Practicing being in up-time and in the present (NLP Practitioner and NLP Master Practitioner).
* Sub-modalities (NLP Practitioner).
* Stepping in to the future outcome (NLP Master Practitioner).
* Parts integration (NLP Practitioner, NLP Master Practitioner).
* Core work (NLP Master Practitioner).
FCA tells firms to revisit past advice after suitability review
The Financial Conduct Authority (FCA) has said firms should revisit advice given in the past after it found unacceptable examples of suitability reports as part of a review which involved 700 firms.
In April 2016 the FCA started the review when it asked firms for suitability reports from the previous year.
The regulator has recently begun to send out letters to firms which took part in the review, detailing what it found out about individual firms.
As well as looking at suitability requirements for a particular client, the regulator has commented on whether reports have met disclosure rules and looked for ‘indications of weaknesses’ in the advice process.
Firms which did not meet the regulator’s standards have been told to rethink advice given in the past.
‘Where we have identified issues with your advice process, please consider how these may have affected any clients and what actions need to be taken to improve these processes going forward,’ the letter, seen by New Model Adviser®, said.
‘Where applicable, you should look to revisit any advice that may need reconsideration and possible further action by your firm.’
In the letter, the FCA tells firms whether the suitability report showed the advice was suitable, unsuitable or unclear. It also tells firms if the level of disclosure is acceptable, unclear or unacceptable.
Problems with advice processes are also identified, where the regulator looked to identify problems which may affect other clients not included in the review.
The FCA said that where problems have been identified with a suitability report, advice firms should tell the clients about any missing information.
‘Please revisit the client file and consider how the client can be informed of the necessary information that has been omitted. In addition, consider how the omission of relevant information disclosure might have adversely impacted other clients and consider whether this omission reveals an area in your wider advice process which might be improved,’ it said.
Advice firms have two weeks to contest any inaccuracies in the FCA’s response.
The FCA has so far stopped short of publishing wider findings from the review of suitability reports.
However, under the ‘next steps’ heading in the letter the regulator said it was considering how to publish general findings from the reports to investment advisers.
‘The findings in this letter are specific to your firm and do not constitute general findings from our review. We will not name firms when communicating any general findings,’ it said.
Compliance Consultant can provide past business review services for any size of IFA or Wealth Manager. Please contact our London office on
0203 815 7939 or 0207 097 1434
In early 20th century America the vast majority of people living in rural areas eked out a living in agriculture. Farms were small, often sharecropped. The planting and harvesting was labor intensive and horses provided the only source of energy for mechanized tilling. The vagaries of weather and drought have always made farming difficult. Crops were mainly grown for consumption by the farmer’s family, with any extra produce bartered for needed goods.
We are all aware of the history of Henry Ford and his invention of the production line to mass-produce Model-T’s. Ford did not invent the automobile, he simply invented a method to produce cars in mass volumes and make them available for virtually anyone wishing to purchase a horse-less carriage. He also revolutionized the agriculture business with totally unforeseen consequences.
The Ford Motor Company was always seeking new avenues of distribution and business opportunities. Ford had grown up in then-rural Michigan and was immersed in the farm world of the age. In the 1920’s Ford introduced the first mass-produced farm tractor, the Fordson. The machine sold for under $400 and revolutionized farming. It quickly became cheaper and less costly to own and maintain a Fordson tractor than a horse.
Farmers quickly gravitated to the Fordson tractor. Crop yield per acre expanded exponentially. Farmers produced so much crop yield per acre that by the middle of the 1920’s we were growing far more food than the country could consume. Prices plummeted. The need for day laborers declined precipitously and rural unemployment exploded.
The collapse of crop prices, unemployment, and the Great Plains drought were significant contributors to the start of the Great Depression. The Fordson was an amazing improvement in the productivity and ability of farmers to lead more comfortable lifestyles. However, the “Law of Unintended Consequences” reared its ugly head in this instance. The creative disruption caused by this product was thrust on a market that could not adjust efficiently or quickly to its significance.
We have a seemingly similar situation occurring today. We constantly read headlines about the dying manufacturing sector in the United States. Politicians love to visit deserted factories and decry the decline of manufacturing in a wide range of formerly profitable industries. And yet, manufacturing in America is setting records for volumes produced, shipped and invoiced. How can this dichotomy exist?
As with the Fordson tractors 1920’s introduction to farmers, today’s manufacturing has evolved dramatically and created disruptive technologies. Robots, software, customized computer models, computer assisted design and modern communications mean that we produce ever more sophisticated products, in greater volumes, and at lower prices, while needing fewer workers per unit of production. The workers that are needed today require better education, and skills than the production line workers of yore.
When I was growing up in an industrial area of America in the 1960’s many of my contemporaries went to work with their fathers at the local mill or factory. These were overwhelmingly union jobs. Each of my buddies at that time thought they would be employed for life like their fathers had been. It has worked out that none are where they started, not one.
The displacement is as painful today as it was on the farm of the 1920’s. However, the benefits to society accruing from modern manufacturing technologies and systems, just like the advances in farming owing to mechanization, cannot be denied. Only the Luddites of the 19th century and there modern adherents believe life is not more comfortable today and more people have more access to more goods and services at lower prices that at any time in history.
Change is hard and often inconvenient. We live during an age of massive change unlike any time in history. The understanding of and acceptance of modern realities insure that most people will benefit from advances in technology. Those that do not want to change and accept the new order of things will be left behind.
Henry Ford did not sell the Fordson tractor to instigate the Great Depression. The product was a small, inadvertent contributing factor. The inability of markets of that day to allocate resources and find markets for the massive increases in crops harvested was a systemic failure. Today, we manufacture products that are consumed quickly and create the thirst for more inventions and technologically advances. We are all better off as a result.
Of course there are many other ways that the regulator may hear about something detrimental, but we have shown the mainstream areas here.
Members of our retainer “Call Anytime Service“ get access to the “Regulatory Crisis” help we provide and will receive free regular updates and information. See the “Shop” for details.
Specifying floor covering for a commercial application requires at least a passing understanding of how it will perform in the workplace.Unfortunately, markings like “contract quality” or “heavy domestic” are open to interpretation, making it difficult for the specifier to make an informed decision.
Simon Lawrence of UK carpet tile specialist, Bürofloor, offers some insight into the standard tests that can be applied to carpet that has to perform – and last – in the punishing commercial environment.
Commercial premises place heavy performance requirements on any sort of floor covering. When coffee gets spilt at home there’s an immediate flurry of mopping and spraying with stain remover. In the workplace it’s more likely to be ignored and then walked on by unwiped outdoor shoes. Your sofa at home gets moved when you need to remove dust or dinky toys from underneath it. The castor chairs in your office travel miles, boring holes in the carpet tiles as they do so.
This means that we need a benchmark by which we can judge the suitability of carpet or carpet tiles for commercial contract use. Fortunately there are standardised tests to provide Euronorm (EN) and International Standards Organisation (ISO) certification. Genuine heavy contract products should carry the standards described here.
ISO 8543 – Effective Pile Weight
Carpet tiles need dense, closely-grouped pile to provide the required wear resistance. To provide a standard for this, ISO 8543 specifies a method of shaving the carpet down to its backing. It simply measures the mass of the pile removed in grams per square metre. In general, the greater the pile mass, the harder-wearing will be the carpet tile.
ISO 1765 – Total thickness
This is another relatively simple test. In this case the carpet tile is compressed by a standard weight, and then its thickness is measured to the nearest 0.1mm.
EN 1963 – Lisson Treadwheel Test
This test measures the carpet’s resistance to scuffing, in particular highlighting how strongly the pile tufts are secured. The treadwheel is positioned above the carpet to be tested and rolled to and fro across the sample 400 times. The wheel turns slightly faster than it moves across the carpet creating a severe scuffing effect. The tested carpet sample is compared to the master samples and is rated accordingly. This is a particularly aggressive test, literally ripping some types of carpet tile to shreds. A pass under EN1963 is a strong indicator of good wear resistance.
ISO 10361 – Accelerated Wear Testing
This standard is particularly relevant for carpet tiles that will be used in an office. It’s composed of two tests, the Vetterman drum test and the castor chair test.
Vetterman Drum Test
The Vetterman Drum Test is intended to simulate heavy, focused footfall. Foot traffic tends to be concentrated around doorways or narrow passages between desks, and these areas can quickly become threadbare.
The carpet for testing is fixed inside a revolving metal drum. A heavy (7.5Kg) ball, covered in hard rubber protrusions, is placed inside the drum and is allowed to bounce around freely. The carpet is subjected to two test programmes, one of 5,000 rotations of the drum and one of 22,000 rotations.
The carpet is then visually judged against master wear samples and is given a rating for how well it has withstood the effects of the test.
The visual inspections of the carpet give results from 1 to 5 for both 5,000 and 22,000 rotations and the final result is a combination of the two results according to the formula below;
Total Result = 0.75 x Result after 5,000 rotations + 0.25 x result after 22,000 rotations
A result of 2 or more is a pass
A result of 2.4 or more is a pass for intensive use
Castor Chair Test
Castor chairs are particularly damaging, and the ragged holes they wear in floor coverings can represent a tripping hazard. The results of this test should be an essential part of the office carpet specification.
The test rig rolls a three-castored chair, carrying a weight of 90kg, across the carpet. Two samples are used, one run for 5,000 and one for 25,000 cycles.
The tested samples are visually assessed against standard samples and are rated on a scale of 1-5. The final result for the test is given according to the formula below;
Total Result = 0.75 x Result after 5,000 rotations + 0.25 x result after 25,000 rotations
ISO/DIS 10965 – Electrical Resistance
This test is particularly important for contract carpet that could well find itself in computer rooms where a build up of static electricity could damage valuable equipment.
The carpet sample to be tested must be acclimatized for at least 7 days before the test at a temperature of 23+/-1°C and 25+/-2% relative humidity. This is because humidity impacts so greatly on conductivity of textiles and must be controlled rigorously to get a meaningful test.
In this test regime the horizontal resistance and vertical resistance of the carpet is measured (in Ohms).
Horizontal resistance: An isolating underlay is placed under the carpet tile sample which should be pile upward. 2 electrodes are connected to the tile 200 mm apart and the resistance in Ohms is measured between them.
Vertical resistance: Here the electrodes are above and below the carpet tile and the resistance in Ohms is measured between them.
Measurements of less than 1010 Ohms are necessary for computer rooms.
ISO 3415 – Static Loading (Compression test)
This test is designed to see how much the carpet is compressed by a weight placed on it. It replicates the effect of furniture on the carpet.
The thickness is measured before compression
A pressure of 220 kPa is applied for 15, 30 and 60 minutes.
The result is simply given in the loss of thickness in mm after
a recovery period of 1 hour.
ISO 140-8 Acoustic Properties
The test equipment for this standard consists of two spaces, one above the other and 5 hammers, each of 500 gr. The first test is to measure impact absorption – i.e. how much impact noise is absorbed by the carpet sample.
First of all the hammers are allowed to free fall onto the floor of the upper space from a height of 4 cm, each striking the floor 10 times / second. The noise in decibels is recorded in the space below.
The test is then repeated with the addition of the sample carpet to the floor of the higher space.
The difference in decibels is the amount of impact noise that has been absorbed by the carpet sample. This test is interesting in that it shows how well carpet performs to stop noise transmission compared to other floorcoverings like wood or vinyl.
For ISO 354 the absorption of ambient noise is measured. Noise of different frequencies; (125 – 250 – 500 – 1000 – 2000) are broadcast down into a room of 200m³ and the amount of noise bounced back from the floor is measured. This is then compared with the noise reflected by the floor when covered with sample material. A result of 0.5 in this test shows that 50% of the noise that would have been reflected was absorbed by the test sample and that the remaining 50% was reflected by it.
ISO 2551 – Dimensional Stability and EN 986 for tiles
Carpet tiles must maintain their dimensions ±0.02% after the following treatments:
Heating to a temperature of 60°C for 2 hours
Bathing in water at a temperature of 20°C for 2 hours
Further heating to a temperature of 60°C for 24 hours
Conditioning in normal atmospheric conditions for 48 hours
These treatments demonstrate that the tiles will retain their integrity in the toughest conditions like hot water cleaning and extreme temperatures.
Cost of Ownership
All floor coverings carry a hidden expense in the form of replacement costs. In commercial premises this cost is raised further by the business disruption of installing new carpet tiles. Buying unwisely will inevitably lead to higher expense. A reputable supplier should respond positively to a request for test data. Hopefully the information in this article will help make sense of the test specifications and support a properly informed choice.