Right To Information Act, 2005


This legislation may be termed as one of the rarest legislations in the Indian Legal History which provides for setting out the practical regime of ‘Right to Information’ for Citizens to secure access to information under the control of public authorities and in order to promote transparency & accountability in the working of every public authority, the constitution of a Central Information Commission and State Information Commissions and for matters connected therewith or incidental thereto.

This Legislation will prove to be a ‘Landmark’, since it is enacted NOT for the people to follow but for the Government to follow.

Through this legislation, the Government has made an attempt to administer itself, be answerable to the people & penalize itself for lacking in providing the required information and regain people’s lost confidence in the bureaucratic system and setup.

Extent and Commencement:

This Act extends to the whole of India except the State of Jammu and Kashmir. This Act of Parliament received the assent of the President of India on the 15th June, 2005.

Some Important Definitions:

1. Information [Section 2(f)]:

Information means any material in any form, including records, documents, memos, e-mails, opinions, advices, press releases, circulars, orders, logbooks, contracts, reports, papers, samples, models, data material held in any electronic form and information relating to any private body which can be accessed by a public authority under any other law for the time being in force.

2. Record [Section 2(i)]:

Record includes-

(a) any document, manuscript and file;

(b) any microfilm, microfiche and facsimile copy of a document;

(c) any reproduction of image or images embodied in such microfilm

(whether enlarged or not)

(d) any other material produced by a computer or any other device.

3. Right to Information [Section 2(j)]:

Right to Information means the right to information accessible under this Act which is held by or under the control of any public authority and includes the right to –

(i) inspection of work, documents, records;

(ii) taking notes, extracts or certified copies of documents or records;

(iii) taking certified samples of material;

(iv) obtaining information in the form of diskettes, floppies, tapes, video cassettes or in any other electronic mode or through printouts where such information is stored in a computer or in any other device.

4. Public Authority [Section 2(h)]:

Public Authority means any authority or body or institution of self- government established or constituted-

(a) by or under the Constitution;

(b) by any other law made by Parliament;

(c) by any other law made by State Legislature;

(d) by notification issued or order made by the appropriate Government,

and includes any-

(i) body owned, controlled or substantially financed;

(ii) non-Government organisation substantially financed, directly or indirectly by funds provided by the appropriate Government;

Exemption from disclosure of information [Section 8]:

Like any other legislation, this Act also provides for exemptions to the Government from disclosure of information regarding information – which would cause a breach of privilege of Parliament or the State Legislature / harm the competitive position of a third party / endanger the life or physical safety of any person / impede the process of investigation or apprehension or prosecution of offenders / weaken confidence of the Foreign Government / Disclose the Records of deliberations of the Council of Ministers, Secretaries and other Officers / relates to personal information which has no relationship to any public activity or interest, or which would cause unwarranted invasion of the privacy of the individual unless the Central Public Information Officer or the State Public Information Officer or the appellate authority, as the case may be, is satisfied that the larger public interest justifies the disclosure of such information / involve infringement of copyright.

IMPACT: To hide or avoid giving the required information demanded, the Officers of the concerned Public Authorities may resort to take advantage of these Exemptions. Hence it may be necessary for the ‘Information Seeker’ to be clear in his mind about the exact interpretation of the provisions and exemptions so that he may not be taken for a ride by the officials and can claim his Right to information rightfully.

Administration of the Act [Section 12]:

A body to be known as the ‘Central Information Commission’ is constituted to exercise the powers conferred on, and to perform the functions assigned to, it under this Act. The Central Information Commission shall consist of- The Chief Information Commissioner and such number of Central Information Commissioners as may be deemed necessary.

Every State Government shall constitute a body to be known as the

(name of the State) Information Commission to exercise the powers conferred on, and to perform the functions assigned to, it under this Act. The State Information Commission shall consist of- The State Chief Information Commissioner and such number of State Information Commissioners as may be deemed necessary.

The Central Information Commission or State Information Commission shall, while inquiring into any matter under this section, have the same powers as are vested in a civil court while trying a suit under the Code of Civil Procedure, 1908.

Every public authority shall designate as many officers as the Central Public Information Officers or State Public Information Officers, as the case may be, in all administrative units or offices under it as may be necessary to provide information to persons requesting for the information under this Act. Every public authority shall designate an officer at each sub-divisional level or other sub-district level as a Central Assistant Public Information Officer or a State Assistant Public Information Officer, as the case may be, to receive the applications for information or appeals under this Act for forwarding the same forthwith to the Central Public Information Officer or the State Public Information Officer or senior officer specified or the Central Information Commission or the State Information Commission, as the case may be.

Timeframes within which the desired information should be made available by the concerned Public Authority:

A person who desires to obtain any information shall make a request in writing or through electronic means in English or Hindi or in the official language of the area in which the application is being made, accompanying such fee as may be prescribed, to-

(a) the Central Public Information Officer or State Public Information Officer, as the case may be, of the concerned public authority;

(b) the Central Assistant Public Information Officer or State Assistant Public Information Officer, as the case may be, specifying the particulars of the information sought by him or her.

An applicant making request for information shall not be required to give any reason for requesting the information or any other personal details except those that may be necessary for contacting him.

On receipt of a request the Central Public Information Officer or State Public Information Officer shall as expeditiously as possible, and in any case within Thirty Days of the receipt of the request, either provide the information on payment of such fee as may be prescribed or reject the request for a reason. If the Central Public Information Officer or State Public Information Officer fails to give decision on the request for information within the said period it shall be deemed to have refused the request. The person making request for the information shall be provided the information free of charge where a public authority fails to comply with the time limits specified.

IMPACT: Making requests for information through electronic means may not be easy practically, since not all the Public Authority offices are fully computerized and may not have computer savvy staff. The urban class who may resort to make request through electronic means may get discouraged. Explanations like, ‘Computer error’, ‘Server down’ may be resorted to, for avoiding furnishing of information.

Penalties for not making available the desired information:

If without any reasonable cause, the concerned Officer refuses to receive an application for information or has not furnished information within the time specified or malafidely denied the request for information or knowingly given incorrect, incomplete or misleading information or destroyed information which was the subject of the request or obstructed in any manner in furnishing the information, a penalty of two hundred and fifty rupees each day till application is received or information is furnished, so however, the total amount of such penalty shall not exceed twenty-five thousand rupees shall be imposed and / or disciplinary action against the concerned Officer may be taken. Provided that the Central Public Information Officer or the State Public Information Officer, as the case may be, shall be given a reasonable opportunity of being heard before any penalty is imposed or disciplinary action is taken against him.


The enactment of the Right to Information Act, 2005 makes a noteworthy attempt to streamline the working of the Public Authorities in respect of providing information to the people. The Authorities will require being technology savvy, alert and need to imbibe in them the not before attitude, of being answerable to the citizens. The Public Authorities will now require tightening their belts so as to serve the people and truly contribute to the Information Technology era. As for the citizens, this Act makes them aware of their one of the Constitutional Rights – Right to Information and gives them the opportunity to exercise it in good faith.

Complete Assistance in the preparation for the implementation of the SMR/CR can be obtained from us at Complaince Consultant Where we have experience in the banking sector from 2015/2016.

Source by Dr. Anand Wadadekar

How The Simple Lemon Can Heal The Liver & The Body & Benefit Those With Cancer & Hiv / Aids

For years the lemon has sat awkwardly amongst other fruits. As children we knew the lemon tasted bitter, and because of this, we often found ourselves drawn to its peculiar mystique.

In recent years, the lemon has been used to control the spread of the HIV virus, and has been demonstrated in research studies to kill the HIV virus.

Dr Peter Piot of UNAIDS hailed the discovery that the juice of the lemon kills HIV in the test tube, declaring: ” UNAIDS would like to give you (Professor Roger Short and your ‘LemonAIDS’ team) every encouragement to pursue this exciting new lead.”

Keeping the liver healthy is a critical step in the health and recovery of both cancer patients and those with HIV / AIDS.

According to Dr Leo Roy MD, ND [Immune Perspectives], “No disease, especially degenerative diseases including cancer and AIDS, could survive longer than a few weeks in the presence of a healthy liver.”

A recent discovery by those working with HIV / AIDS has found that combining the simple lemon with extra virgin olive oil and blending these together (with the lemon rind and seeds) and a glass and half of spring water, can and does produce amazing results, when drunk on a daily basis.

The lemon and the extra virgin olive oil, when taken together, act as a potent liver and gallbladder flush, detoxifying the liver, lowering biliruben levels, removing heavy metals, increasing the production of bile from the liver, stimulating lymphatic flow, and restoring the pH of your saliva, which in turn helps you to absorb the nutrients from the food you eat.

The liver is truly the master organ of the immune system, producing chemicals to combat viruses (including the HIV virus) and bacteria, supporting phagocytic [immune function], and producing antihistamines to neutralize substances that promote the growth of cancer. When the liver is not functioning properly – and is over-blocked by toxins – the body’s immune system is severely weakened leading to chronic illness. The lemon & extra virgin olive oil drink not only prevents chronic illness, but works to reverse it.

According to Mark Konlee from his paper How to Reverse Immune Dysfunction – “The immune system has two ‘arms’ – the TH1 and TH2 systems. They tend to be connected: when the one is strong, the other is weak, and visa versa. The Lemon / Extra Virgin Olive Oil drink has been reported to balance the two arms of the immune system. This would help in both suppressed immune system and autoimmune conditions (including HIV / AIDS and cancer).”

Restoring pH levels to normal alkaline levels of 7.0 or greater, is of tremendous importance for the cancer patient. Lemons are one of the most alkaline forming foods on the face of the planet, and when consumed on a regular daily basis (especially with the rind and seeds), cause pH levels in the body to rise and become very alkaline, to levels typically above 7.4 or greater, making it difficult for cancer cells to survive because of the amount of oxygen present. The majority of cancer patients have acidic pH levels of below 6.5, meaning that normal cells are not able to respirate or “breathe” properly. This causes cells to mutate and become cancerous. This discovery was made by Nobel Prize winner Dr. Otto Warburg, who discovered that cancer cells only thrive in a low-oxygen state. In this way, the simple lemon can help to fight cancer.

The lemon & extra virgin olive oil drink also helps to lower and restore biliruben levels in those with liver cancer and liver disease. An elevated biliruben level is a key indicator of a damaged liver. Recently a patient of mine with liver cancer, who had a consistently high biliruben level of 36 (disqualifying her from chemotherapy), took for the first time the lemon & extra virgin olive oil drink. She drank her first and only drink on Thursday. Her biliruben levels had been measured 3 days before and were at the usual 36. She was tested on Friday (one day after her first drink) and her biliruben level measured 28, then two days later it was measured, and it was at 22 (to a near normal level)! This ordinarily skeptical woman was gobsmacked!

So the next time you find yourself walking past a lemon tree, consider how the simple lemon can and is beginning to wage the war against two of the world’s most devastating diseases – cancer and HIV / AIDS.

For further information on the Lemon / Extra Virgin Olive Oil Drink and related articles and research on cancer and HIV / AIDS and beating these diseases naturally, go to www.alternative-cancer-care.com

Complete Assistance in the preparation for the implementation of the SMR/CR can be obtained from us at Complaince Consultant Where we have experience in the banking sector from 2015/2016.

Source by Glen Russell

Chad Waterbury’s 10-10 Transformation Training and Nutritional System

Are you looking for a complete body transformation but you aren’t sure what to do for workout and diet? Do you have 12 weeks to commit yourself to something that will change the way you look forever? If you want to turn that pear shape into a V-shape with 6 pack abs I recommend you check out my experience with Chad Waterbury’s 10/10 Transformation.

The first thing I have to say is that I am a big fan of Chad Waterbury. He puts out excellent workout programs with his state of the art theories on muscular development and recovery. He’s been the new guy on the block for the last couple of years but has been gaining notoriety quickly because his programs do something very important. They produce real and noticeable results!

Before I continue let me give you a quick bio from his website so you know this isn’t another run of the mill trainer:

Chad is a neurophysiologist and author.

His training methods are used by a wide range of athletes, bodybuilders, models, and fitness enthusiast.

Chad is the director of strength and conditioning at Rickson Gracie Int. Jiu Jitsu Center in LA.

Chad is a regular contributor to the T-Muscle bodybuilding website.

Chad has a master’s degree in physiology from the University of Arizona.

Chad’s focus there was on the neurophysiology of human movement and performance. This lead him to make radical changes in the way he trains competitive athletes. His workouts are now shorter and faster, producing superior results in strength, power, and muscular development.

His eBook, the 10/10 Transformation, is a remarkable triumph of new muscle technology put to work. It’s designed to have you gain 10 pounds of muscle and lose 10 pounds of fat in 12 weeks. Your body weight will be exactly the same but you will look completely different by shedding a few inches off of your waist and adding 10 pounds of pure muscle to your physique. If you can shrink the waistline while beefing up the upper body you will be amazed at the difference you can make in your appearance.

The 10/10 Transformation has several elements that appealed to me. As a fitness enthusiast I am always looking for a great routine that will give real visible results. Standard routines and diets are just plain boring. The 10/10 mixes everything up with challenge and change throughout. It includes a daily diet, daily workout routine, supplement regime, and tips for success. It is a very easy program to follow but you must be ready to commit yourself to some grueling workouts. The program divides itself into four separate three week programs. Your body will not be able to fully adapt to this which means you will get steady results for the entire 12 weeks. The first three weeks is fat loss, followed by 3 weeks of muscle gain, 3 more weeks of fat loss, and a final 3 weeks of muscle gain to add the finishing touch to your body.

By focusing exclusively on either fat burn or muscle gain during each 3 week period you can maximize your results, keep your body off guard, and keep your mind fresh without getting bored. During the 3 week body fat phases you will do 3 full body workouts during the week which vary the rest, rep, and the load of the weight. I did those on Monday, Wednesday, and Friday. They only take about 35 minutes but you will be in a full sweat and exhausted at the end. These workouts build muscle and burn fat. You do need to have a bit of conditioning under your belt to tackle these workouts because they will kick your butt. The other two days of the week you do a 20 minute HIIT cardio session. Total time spent in the gym is about 3 hours during the entire week. That’s not much time to drop 5 pounds of fat and get stronger at the same time! During my initial 3 weeks I was a bit loose on the diet having 3-4 cheat meals per week rather than the prescribed 2 (yes you get to eat cheat meals, pizza for me!) At the end of the first 3 weeks I lost 1 inch off of my waist while gaining 2 pounds on the scale. I have found that every inch off my waist equates to 4-5 pounds of fat so I lost about 4 pounds of fat and gained 6 pounds of lean body weight. The difference in my physique was dramatic. You might be thinking that is a lot of mass to gain but I started using creating during that 3 weeks and typically my muscle cells volumize and I gain exactly 6-7 pounds once it is in my system so it was right on target. I lost close to 5 pounds and my muscles had more volume from the creatine.

I went right into the muscle building phase which is a nice change of pace. Waterbury uses something very radical called HFT or High Frequency Training. I trained each muscle about 5 times per week. The weight, reps, sets, and rest periods are changed up each workout so it keeps your body guessing and allows the separate pathways in the muscles time for recovery. I gained a stunning 8 pounds in 3 weeks. I was really sore the first week but got used to it. Part of my success was sticking very close to his diet which recommended a heavy amount of BCAA’s during the entire 3 weeks. High protein, supplemented BCAA’s, and rigorous workouts for 3 weeks put slabs of muscle on quickly. There are no cardio workouts during the 3 weeks because the body needs all of it’s time for rest.

After those 6 weeks I already had a big transformation in my body so the book was already well worth the price. I completed the transformation and can tell you it lives up to its name. The initial 3 week fat burning program is so effective that I have used that segment alone 3 more times during the course of the year when I want to drop 5-6 pounds quickly and gain some muscle.

If you’re looking for something that is extremely effective for fat loss and muscle gain then I highly recommend the 10/10 workout. The diet plan is simple to follow and easy enough for someone that doesn’t have any time to cook or prepare meals. It lays out every detail in this 1 simple book and leaves nothing to chance. The other thing I liked was you will now have 4 routines that you can use at anytime. If you want to lose fat you can pull out one of the two fat burning workouts or on the flip side gain muscle with one of the two 3 week muscle gaining routines.

Complete Assistance in the preparation for the implementation of the SMR/CR can be obtained from us at Complaince Consultant Where we have experience in the banking sector from 2015/2016.

Source by Rick Porter

Improving Your Concentration With NLP Training

The human mind is not easy to control. There are times when we can focus on the task at hand to such a degree that the rest of the world simply melts away. Then there are those moments when the mind goes in a million different directions at once, contrary to our best intentions of focus. Of course, there are also instances when the only thing our mind will focus on is the opposite of what we want to be thinking about!

With NLP training, we can learn to focus when we really need to, when the stakes are high.

First off, let’s highlight a few types of distractions that keep us from concentrating, so we can learn what to avoid. There are two categories of distractions: Internal and External.

Internal Distractions:

* Focusing on the past or the future, as opposed to being present in the moment and making the best out of each situation.

* Negative Self Talk. A few well-timed negative words can be just the thing to get our minds firing off track in a non-productive direction.

* Tiredness.

* Emotional states like fear and anxiety distract our minds and keep us from reaching or goals.

External Distractions:

* Visual Interference (people traffic in your environment, opening doors, bright colors, etc.).

* Audio Interference (music, people talking near you, sounds of traffic, ringing cellphones, etc.).

* Kinesthetic problems like temperature changes, uncomfortable clothing or seating.

* Receiving negative feedback from others.

Many people can focus their peak concentration on a specified goal, but then once that goal is achieved, all concentration goes out the window. How can we achieve sustained mental energy? A large part of this is actually preparation. For instance, when I am preparing for an important event, I start mentally and physically days before hand. I pay special attention to sleeping well, eating a healthy diet, and exercising. The morning of the event, I like to get up early and do meditation and visualization exercises to put my mind a good place.

Apart from these common sense practices, NLP Master Practitioner can help you learn powerful concentration techniques and design an individualized training regime. Some techniques include:

* Removing limits created in the past (NLP Master Practitioner).

* Changing negative self talk into positive self talk (NLP Practitioner + NLP Master Practitioner training).

* Setting anchors on yourself (touch, a word etc), or the capability to step in to a spatial anchor (NLP Practitioner).

* Stepping in to the right perceptual position or new behavior generator (NLP Practitioner).

* Using Visualization Techniques (even a simple STOP sign)

* ‘Switching On’ with TOTE Strategies (NLP Practitioner).

* Model yourself on someone whose excellence you admire (NLP Master Practitioner).

* Practicing being in up-time and in the present (NLP Practitioner and NLP Master Practitioner).

* Sub-modalities (NLP Practitioner).

* Stepping in to the future outcome (NLP Master Practitioner).

* Parts integration (NLP Practitioner, NLP Master Practitioner).

* Core work (NLP Master Practitioner).

Complete Assistance in the preparation for the implementation of the SMR/CR can be obtained from us at Complaince Consultant Where we have experience in the banking sector from 2015/2016.

Source by Nicole Schneider

How Henry Ford’s Invention Inadvertently Caused the Depression

In early 20th century America the vast majority of people living in rural areas eked out a living in agriculture. Farms were small, often sharecropped. The planting and harvesting was labor intensive and horses provided the only source of energy for mechanized tilling. The vagaries of weather and drought have always made farming difficult. Crops were mainly grown for consumption by the farmer’s family, with any extra produce bartered for needed goods.

We are all aware of the history of Henry Ford and his invention of the production line to mass-produce Model-T’s. Ford did not invent the automobile, he simply invented a method to produce cars in mass volumes and make them available for virtually anyone wishing to purchase a horse-less carriage. He also revolutionized the agriculture business with totally unforeseen consequences.

The Ford Motor Company was always seeking new avenues of distribution and business opportunities. Ford had grown up in then-rural Michigan and was immersed in the farm world of the age. In the 1920’s Ford introduced the first mass-produced farm tractor, the Fordson. The machine sold for under $400 and revolutionized farming. It quickly became cheaper and less costly to own and maintain a Fordson tractor than a horse.

Farmers quickly gravitated to the Fordson tractor. Crop yield per acre expanded exponentially. Farmers produced so much crop yield per acre that by the middle of the 1920’s we were growing far more food than the country could consume. Prices plummeted. The need for day laborers declined precipitously and rural unemployment exploded.

The collapse of crop prices, unemployment, and the Great Plains drought were significant contributors to the start of the Great Depression. The Fordson was an amazing improvement in the productivity and ability of farmers to lead more comfortable lifestyles. However, the “Law of Unintended Consequences” reared its ugly head in this instance. The creative disruption caused by this product was thrust on a market that could not adjust efficiently or quickly to its significance.

We have a seemingly similar situation occurring today. We constantly read headlines about the dying manufacturing sector in the United States. Politicians love to visit deserted factories and decry the decline of manufacturing in a wide range of formerly profitable industries. And yet, manufacturing in America is setting records for volumes produced, shipped and invoiced. How can this dichotomy exist?

As with the Fordson tractors 1920’s introduction to farmers, today’s manufacturing has evolved dramatically and created disruptive technologies. Robots, software, customized computer models, computer assisted design and modern communications mean that we produce ever more sophisticated products, in greater volumes, and at lower prices, while needing fewer workers per unit of production. The workers that are needed today require better education, and skills than the production line workers of yore.

When I was growing up in an industrial area of America in the 1960’s many of my contemporaries went to work with their fathers at the local mill or factory. These were overwhelmingly union jobs. Each of my buddies at that time thought they would be employed for life like their fathers had been. It has worked out that none are where they started, not one.

The displacement is as painful today as it was on the farm of the 1920’s. However, the benefits to society accruing from modern manufacturing technologies and systems, just like the advances in farming owing to mechanization, cannot be denied. Only the Luddites of the 19th century and there modern adherents believe life is not more comfortable today and more people have more access to more goods and services at lower prices that at any time in history.

Change is hard and often inconvenient. We live during an age of massive change unlike any time in history. The understanding of and acceptance of modern realities insure that most people will benefit from advances in technology. Those that do not want to change and accept the new order of things will be left behind.

Henry Ford did not sell the Fordson tractor to instigate the Great Depression. The product was a small, inadvertent contributing factor. The inability of markets of that day to allocate resources and find markets for the massive increases in crops harvested was a systemic failure. Today, we manufacture products that are consumed quickly and create the thirst for more inventions and technologically advances. We are all better off as a result.

Complete Assistance in the preparation for the implementation of the SMR/CR can be obtained from us at Complaince Consultant Where we have experience in the banking sector from 2015/2016.

Source by Geoff Ficke

Standard Tests for Carpet Tiles

Specifying floor covering for a commercial application requires at least a passing understanding of how it will perform in the workplace.Unfortunately, markings like “contract quality” or “heavy domestic” are open to interpretation, making it difficult for the specifier to make an informed decision.

Simon Lawrence of UK carpet tile specialist, Bürofloor, offers some insight into the standard tests that can be applied to carpet that has to perform – and last – in the punishing commercial environment.

Commercial premises place heavy performance requirements on any sort of floor covering. When coffee gets spilt at home there’s an immediate flurry of mopping and spraying with stain remover. In the workplace it’s more likely to be ignored and then walked on by unwiped outdoor shoes. Your sofa at home gets moved when you need to remove dust or dinky toys from underneath it. The castor chairs in your office travel miles, boring holes in the carpet tiles as they do so.

This means that we need a benchmark by which we can judge the suitability of carpet or carpet tiles for commercial contract use. Fortunately there are standardised tests to provide Euronorm (EN) and International Standards Organisation (ISO) certification. Genuine heavy contract products should carry the standards described here.

ISO 8543 – Effective Pile Weight

Carpet tiles need dense, closely-grouped pile to provide the required wear resistance. To provide a standard for this, ISO 8543 specifies a method of shaving the carpet down to its backing. It simply measures the mass of the pile removed in grams per square metre. In general, the greater the pile mass, the harder-wearing will be the carpet tile.

ISO 1765 – Total thickness

This is another relatively simple test. In this case the carpet tile is compressed by a standard weight, and then its thickness is measured to the nearest 0.1mm.

EN 1963 – Lisson Treadwheel Test

This test measures the carpet’s resistance to scuffing, in particular highlighting how strongly the pile tufts are secured. The treadwheel is positioned above the carpet to be tested and rolled to and fro across the sample 400 times. The wheel turns slightly faster than it moves across the carpet creating a severe scuffing effect. The tested carpet sample is compared to the master samples and is rated accordingly. This is a particularly aggressive test, literally ripping some types of carpet tile to shreds. A pass under EN1963 is a strong indicator of good wear resistance.

ISO 10361 – Accelerated Wear Testing

This standard is particularly relevant for carpet tiles that will be used in an office. It’s composed of two tests, the Vetterman drum test and the castor chair test.

Vetterman Drum Test

The Vetterman Drum Test is intended to simulate heavy, focused footfall. Foot traffic tends to be concentrated around doorways or narrow passages between desks, and these areas can quickly become threadbare.

The carpet for testing is fixed inside a revolving metal drum. A heavy (7.5Kg) ball, covered in hard rubber protrusions, is placed inside the drum and is allowed to bounce around freely. The carpet is subjected to two test programmes, one of 5,000 rotations of the drum and one of 22,000 rotations.

The carpet is then visually judged against master wear samples and is given a rating for how well it has withstood the effects of the test.

The visual inspections of the carpet give results from 1 to 5 for both 5,000 and 22,000 rotations and the final result is a combination of the two results according to the formula below;

Total Result = 0.75 x Result after 5,000 rotations + 0.25 x result after 22,000 rotations

A result of 2 or more is a pass

A result of 2.4 or more is a pass for intensive use

Castor Chair Test

Castor chairs are particularly damaging, and the ragged holes they wear in floor coverings can represent a tripping hazard. The results of this test should be an essential part of the office carpet specification.

The test rig rolls a three-castored chair, carrying a weight of 90kg, across the carpet. Two samples are used, one run for 5,000 and one for 25,000 cycles.

The tested samples are visually assessed against standard samples and are rated on a scale of 1-5. The final result for the test is given according to the formula below;

Total Result = 0.75 x Result after 5,000 rotations + 0.25 x result after 25,000 rotations

ISO/DIS 10965 – Electrical Resistance

This test is particularly important for contract carpet that could well find itself in computer rooms where a build up of static electricity could damage valuable equipment.

The carpet sample to be tested must be acclimatized for at least 7 days before the test at a temperature of 23+/-1°C and 25+/-2% relative humidity. This is because humidity impacts so greatly on conductivity of textiles and must be controlled rigorously to get a meaningful test.

In this test regime the horizontal resistance and vertical resistance of the carpet is measured (in Ohms).

Horizontal resistance: An isolating underlay is placed under the carpet tile sample which should be pile upward. 2 electrodes are connected to the tile 200 mm apart and the resistance in Ohms is measured between them.

Vertical resistance: Here the electrodes are above and below the carpet tile and the resistance in Ohms is measured between them.

Measurements of less than 1010 Ohms are necessary for computer rooms.

ISO 3415 – Static Loading (Compression test)

This test is designed to see how much the carpet is compressed by a weight placed on it. It replicates the effect of furniture on the carpet.

The thickness is measured before compression

A pressure of 220 kPa is applied for 15, 30 and 60 minutes.

The result is simply given in the loss of thickness in mm after

a recovery period of 1 hour.

ISO 140-8 Acoustic Properties

The test equipment for this standard consists of two spaces, one above the other and 5 hammers, each of 500 gr. The first test is to measure impact absorption – i.e. how much impact noise is absorbed by the carpet sample.

First of all the hammers are allowed to free fall onto the floor of the upper space from a height of 4 cm, each striking the floor 10 times / second. The noise in decibels is recorded in the space below.

The test is then repeated with the addition of the sample carpet to the floor of the higher space.

The difference in decibels is the amount of impact noise that has been absorbed by the carpet sample. This test is interesting in that it shows how well carpet performs to stop noise transmission compared to other floorcoverings like wood or vinyl.

For ISO 354 the absorption of ambient noise is measured. Noise of different frequencies; (125 – 250 – 500 – 1000 – 2000) are broadcast down into a room of 200m³ and the amount of noise bounced back from the floor is measured. This is then compared with the noise reflected by the floor when covered with sample material. A result of 0.5 in this test shows that 50% of the noise that would have been reflected was absorbed by the test sample and that the remaining 50% was reflected by it.

ISO 2551 – Dimensional Stability and EN 986 for tiles

Carpet tiles must maintain their dimensions ±0.02% after the following treatments:

Heating to a temperature of 60°C for 2 hours

Bathing in water at a temperature of 20°C for 2 hours

Further heating to a temperature of 60°C for 24 hours

Conditioning in normal atmospheric conditions for 48 hours

These treatments demonstrate that the tiles will retain their integrity in the toughest conditions like hot water cleaning and extreme temperatures.

Cost of Ownership

All floor coverings carry a hidden expense in the form of replacement costs. In commercial premises this cost is raised further by the business disruption of installing new carpet tiles. Buying unwisely will inevitably lead to higher expense. A reputable supplier should respond positively to a request for test data. Hopefully the information in this article will help make sense of the test specifications and support a properly informed choice.

Complete Assistance in the preparation for the implementation of the SMR/CR can be obtained from us at Complaince Consultant Where we have experience in the banking sector from 2015/2016.

Source by Simon Lawrence

Women Empowerment – Myth Or Reality

You can tell the condition of a nation by looking at the status of its women.

– Jawaharlal Nehru

Empowerment of any section of a society is a myth until they are conferred equality before law. The foundation of freedom, justice and fraternity is based on the recognition of the inherent dignity and of equal and inalienable rights to all the members of the society. The Universal Declaration of Human Rights adopted and proclaimed by the General Assembly of the United Nations on 10th December 1948, envisaged in Article 2 that “every one is entitled to all the rights and freedoms set forth in this declaration without distinction of any kind.”

It has traditionally been accepted that the thread of family weaves the fabric of Indian society. Women are considered as the hub center of the family. Still, in the era of political domination by foreigners, the women in India suffered most. A few social reform measures were taken towards the later 19th and early 20th century during the British regime. The inception of Mahatma Gandhi in the National freedom movement ushered a new concept of mass mobilization. Women constituted about 50% of the country’s total population, he, therefore, involved women in the nation’s liberation movement. The mass participation of women directly in the freedom struggle was the great divide in the history of (Feminist movement) empowerment of women. They shed age-old disabilities and shared the responsibility of liberation of their motherland with their counter parts. The freedom of India thus became synonymous with the empowerment of women. In this context the date of India’s political freedom (August 15, 1947) is a landmark in the history of women empowerment in India. It brought in its wake a great consciousness in our society for human dignity. It was realized that every citizen of independent India be accorded equal treatment under the law.

This is the urban age and Women along with men are here to make an impact, let’s not ignore them, let’s listen and prioritize them. In almost all societies through history, Women have occupied secondary position vis-à-vis men.

Women’s rights and issues have always been a subject of serious concern of academicians, intelligentsia and policy makers. From pastoral society to contemporary information and global society, the role of Women has changed drastically. The role of a typical “Grihani” (house wife) who catered to all the requirements of the house holds including the rearing and upbringing of children in various sub roles of daughter, daughter-in-law, wife, mother, aunt etc. has been played quite efficiently. The continuity of changes in socio-economic and psycho-cultural aspects of human living has influenced the role of Women. With the process of Industrialization, Modernization and Globalization showing its deep impact on the human society all over the world, the role and responsibilities of Women has attained new definition and perspective. Further this has also led to addition of responsibilities and widened the role of Women who also shares the financial responsibilities.

The Women issues have received tremendous attention in the planning circle and in wide intellectual discussions and forums at national and global platforms. However the existing lacuna in the formulation and execution of the policies has not changed the grass root situation to a great extent. On the encouraging front, in the South Asian countries there have been relatively increasing economic participation in past one decade. Statistically the rate of literacy among Women has also increased. The educational and occupational patterns have also changed and widened with Women entering the domains, which till decade back was considered to be dominated by men. Further there has been encouraging rise in the percentage of the Women joining service sector especially Banking and Information Technology. In the background of the gigantic transformation, the core issue, which still remains unanswered, is that of Women’s right and empowerment.

The Women rights are the means by which a dignified living is ensured thereby safeguarding her privileges. Thus the basic fundamental rights of speech, freedom and decision-making are her basic rights as an individual and citizen. The right for education and employment are significant for Women development and national development in the wider sense. The power and freedom to exercise these rights is Women empowerment. Women rights and empowerment are not independent of each other. The Women empowerment can only be facilitated only if she is able to exercise her right in the socio-economic spheres of decision-making.


India, with a population of 989 million, is the world’s second most populous country. Of that number, 120 million are Women who live in poverty.

India has 16 percent of the world’s population, but only 2.4 percent of its land, resulting in great pressures on its natural resources.

Over 70 percent of India’s population currently derives their livelihood from land resources, which includes 84 percent of the economically-active Women.

India is one of the few countries where males significantly outnumber females, and this imbalance has increased over time. India’s maternal mortality rates in rural areas are among the worlds highest. From a global perspective, Indian accounts for 19 percent of all lives births and 27 percent of all maternal deaths.

“There seems to be a consensus that higher female mortality between ages one and five and high maternal mortality rates result in a deficit of females in the population. In the year 1990 it was estimated that deaths of young girls in India exceed those of young boys by over 300,000 each year, and every sixth infant death is specifically due to gender discrimination.” Of the 15 million baby girls born in India each year, nearly 25 percent will not live to see their 15th birthday.

The Indian constitution grants Women equal rights with men, but strong patriarchal traditions persist, with Women’s lives shaped by customs that are centuries old. In most Indian families, a daughter is viewed as a liability, and she is conditioned to believe that she is inferior and subordinate to men. Sons are idolized and celebrated. May you be the mother of a hundred sons is a common Hindu wedding blessing.

The origin of the Indian idea of appropriate female behavior can be traced to the rules laid down by Manu in 200 B.C.: “by a young girl, by a young woman, or even by an aged one, nothing must be done independently, even in her own house”. “In childhood a female must be subject to her father, in youth to her husband, when her lord is dead to her sons; a woman must never be independent.”


The exceptionally high rates of malnutrition in South Asia are rooted deeply in the soil of inequality between men and Women.

This point is made in the article, The Asian Enigma, published by Unicef in the 1996 Progress of Nations, in which the rates of childhood malnutrition in South Asia are compared with those in Africa. We learn that malnutrition is far worse in South Asia, directly due to the fact that Women in South Asia have less voice and freedom of movement than in Africa despite the fact that in comparison to Africa , Asia is far more better in terms of economy.


India’s maternal mortality rates in rural areas are among the highest in the world.

A factor that contributes to India’s high maternal mortality rate is the reluctance to seek medical care for pregnancy – it is viewed as a temporary condition that will disappear. The estimates nationwide are that only 40-50 percent of Women receive any antenatal care. Evidence from the states of Bihar, Rajasthan, Orissa, Uttar Pradesh, Maharashtra and Gujarat find registration for maternal and child health services to be as low as 5-22 percent in rural areas and 21-51 percent in urban areas.

Even a woman who has had difficulties with previous pregnancies is usually treated with home remedies only for three reasons: the decision that a pregnant woman seek help rests with the mother-in-law and husband; financial considerations; and fear that the treatment may be more harmful than the malady.


“Working conditions result in premature and stillbirths.”

The tasks performed by Women are usually those that require them to be in one position for long periods of time, which can adversely affect their reproductive health. A study in a rice-growing belt of coastal Maharashtra found that 40 percent of all infant deaths occurred in the months of July to October. The study also found that a majority of births were either premature or stillbirths. The study attributed this to the squatting position that had to be assumed during July and August, the rice transplanting months.


“Women and girls receive far less education than men, due both to social norms and fears of violence.”

India has the largest population of non-school-going working girls.

Although substantial progress has been achieved since India won its independence in 1947, when less than 8 percent of females were literate, the gains have not been rapid enough to keep pace with population growth: there were 16 million more illiterate females in 1991 than in 1981.


“Women work longer hours and their work is more arduous than men’s. Still, men report that “Women, like children, eat and do nothing.”

Women work roughly twice as many as many hours as men.

Women’s contribution to agriculture – whether it be subsistence farming or commercial agriculture – when measured in terms of the number of tasks performed and time spent, is greater than men. “The extent of Women’s contribution is aptly highlighted by a micro study conducted in the Indian Himalayas which found that on a one-hectare farm, a pair of bullocks works 1,064 hours, a man 1,212 hours and a woman 3,485 hours in a year.”


Women’s work is rarely recognized.

Many maintain that Women’s economic dependence on men impacts their power within the family. With increased participation in income-earning activities, not only will there be more income for the family, but gender inequality should be reduced. This issue is particularly salient in India because studies show a very low level of female participation in the labor force. This under-reporting is attributed to the frequently held view that Women’s work is not economically productive.

Women’s employment in family farms or businesses is rarely recognized as economically productive, either by men or Women. And, any income generated from this work is generally controlled by the men. Such work is unlikely to increase Women’s participation in allocating family finances. In a 1992 study of family-based texile workers, male children who helped in a home-based handloom mill were given pocket money, but the adult Women and girls were not.


“Violence against Women and girls is the most pervasive human rights violation in the world today.”

“Opening the door on the subject of violence against the world’s females is like standing at the threshold of an immense dark chamber vibrating with collective anguish, but with the sounds of protest throttled back to a murmur. Where there should be outrage aimed at an intolerable status quo there is instead denial, and the largely passive acceptance of ‘the way things are.”

Male violence against Women is a worldwide phenomenon. Although not every woman has experienced it, and many expect not to, fear of violence is an important factor in the lives of most Women. It determines what they do, when they do it, where they do it, and with whom. Fear of violence is a cause of Women’s lack of participation in activities beyond the home, as well as inside it. Within the home, Women and girls may be subjected to physical and sexual abuse as punishment or as culturally justified assaults. These acts shape their attitude to life, and their expectations of themselves.

In recent years, there has been an alarming rise in atrocities against Women in India. Every 26 minutes a woman is molested. Every 34 minutes a rape takes place. Every 42 minutes a sexual harassment incident occurs. Every 43 minutes a woman is kidnapped. And every 93 minutes a woman is burnt to death over dowry.

One-quarter of the reported rapes involve girls under the age of 16 but the vast majority are never reported. Although the penalty is severe, convictions are rare.


Legal protection of Women’s rights have little effect in the face of prevailing patriarchal traditions.

Be it in the case of Marriage:

“Women are subordinate in most marriages.”

Child Marriages

“Child marriages keep Women subjugated.”


Women are kept subordinate, and are even murdered, by the practice of dowry.


Divorce is not a viable option.

Divorce is rare – it is a considered a shameful admission of a woman’s failure as a wife and daughter-in-law. In 1990, divorced Women made up a minuscule 0.08 percent of the total female population.

Maintenance rights of Women in the case of divorce are weak. Although both Hindu and Muslim law recognize the rights of Women and children to maintenance, in practice, maintenance is rarely set at a sufficient amount and is frequently violated.


Women’s rights to inheritance are limited and frequently violated.

In the mid-1950s the Hindu personal laws, which apply to all Hindus, Buddhists, Sikhs and Jains, were overhauled, banning polygamy and giving Women rights to inheritance, adoption and divorce. The Muslim personal laws differ considerably from that of the Hindus, and permit polygamy. Despite various laws protecting Women’s rights, traditional patriarchal attitudes still prevail and are strengthened and perpetuated in the home.


The World Bank has identified empowerment as one of the key constituent elements of poverty reduction, and as a primary development assistance goal. The Bank has also made gender mainstreaming a priority in development assistance, and is in the process of implementing an ambitious strategy to this effect. The promotion of Women’s empowerment as a development goal is based on a dual argument: that social justice is an important aspect of human welfare and is intrinsically worth pursuing; and that Women’s empowerment is a means to other ends. A recent policy research report by the World Bank, for example, identifies gender equality both as a development objective in itself, and as a means to promote growth, reduce poverty and promote better governance. A similar dual rationale for supporting Women’s empowerment has been articulated in the policy statements put forth at several high level international conferences in the past decade (e.g. the Beijing Platform for Action, the Beijing declaration and resolution, the Cairo Programme of Action, the Millennium Declaration, and the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women.

Yet to date neither the World Bank nor any other major development agency has developed a rigorous method for measuring and tracking changes in levels of empowerment. In the absence of such measures, it is difficult for the international development community to be confident that their efforts to empower women are succeeding and that this important Millennium Development Goal will be achieved.

Thus, this review attempts to the following:

1. An indication of the different ways in which empowerment has been conceptualized;

2. A critical examination of some of the approaches that have been developed to measure and track changes in Women’s empowerment;

3. An examination of some of the ways in which the effects of policies and programmatic interventions to promote Women’s empowerment have been measured;

4. A summary of the evidence on how Women’s empowerment affects important development outcomes such as health, education, fertility behavior, income levels, etc.

How Should Empowerment be Operationally Defined?

“Empowerment” has been used to represent a wide range of concepts and to describe a proliferation of outcomes. The term has been used more often to advocate for certain types of policies and intervention strategies than to analyze them, as demonstrated by a number of documents from the United Nations, the Association for Women in Development, the Declaration made at the Micro-credit Summit, and other organizations. Feminist activist writings often promote empowerment of individuals and organizations of Women but vary in the extent to which they conceptualize or discuss how to identify it.

Relevant studies describe empowerment as “the enhancement of assets and capabilities of diverse individuals and groups to engage, influence and hold accountable the institutions which affect them.” In general, Women do not take a central place in much of the literature on social inclusion or empowerment.

The Process of Empowerment

There are various attempts in the literature to develop a comprehensive understanding of empowerment through breaking the process down into key components.


Measuring Empowerment from a Universalist Perspective

As we move from a discussion of conceptualizing empowerment to measuring it, it is important to note that measures of empowerment must involve standards that lie outside localized gender systems and a recognition of universal elements of gender subordination.

As we move from a discussion of conceptualizing empowerment to measuring it, it is important to note that measures of empowerment must involve standards that lie outside localized gender systems and a recognition of universal elements of gender subordination (Sen and Grown 1987; Bisnath and Elson 1999; Nussbaum 2000). It is clear from the literature on gender and empowerment that the role of gender in development cannot be understood without understanding the socio-cultural (as well as political and economic) contexts in which development takes place. The concept of empowerment only has meaning within these specific contexts. At the same time, operational definitions (e.g. definitions embodied in indicators to be applied in the context of development assistance policies, programs, and projects) should be consistent with the spirit of international conventions to which countries providing international development assistance have been signatories. The approach based in universal human rights offers the best operational framework for this task.

Because empowerment is multi-dimensional, researchers must use care in constructing index or scale variables relating to empowerment Such variables may mask differential effects of interventions on distinct aspects of empowerment. Inappropriate combining of items relating to gender and empowerment may also mask differential effects of the component variables on outcomes of interest.


Empowerment is Context Specific

One of the major difficulties in measuring empowerment is that the behaviors and attributes that signify empowerment in one context often have different meanings elsewhere. For example, a shift in women’s ability to visit a health center without getting permission from a male household member may be a sign of empowerment in rural Bangladesh but not in, for example, urban Peru. Context can also be important in determining the extent to which empowerment at the household or individual level is a determinant of development outcomes.


There are certain critical paradigms, which need to be examined from the point of view of women issues.

1. Constitutional Provisions and Policies: The principle of gender equality is enshrined in the Constitution of India (in the Preamble and fundamental rights) where by the constitution upholds and grants the equality to women. The National commission for women, which was set up in 1990 through an Act of Parliament to safeguard the rights and legal entitlements of women, is considered to be the apex body to ensure rights and work towards the women empowerment. In terms of five-year plans the fifth five-year plan (1974-78) is considered to be very crucial from the point of view of women development with 1975 being declared as International Year of Women.

The 73rd and 74th Amendments of constitution of India in 1993 are landmarks to ensure political empowerment of women. These provisions surely ensure of legal protection of women’s rights, but socio-economic rights of freedom and decision-making is still not realized to the extent of social empowerment. One of the reasons is the rigid patriarchal structure of the Indian Society.

National Policy for the empowerment of women (2001):

The goal of the National Policy for the empowerment of women is to bring about the advancement, development and empowerment of women. Some of the specific objectives of this policy are: a) Creating an environment through positive economic and social policies for full development of women to enable them to realize their full potential, b) Equal access to health care, quality education at all levels, career and vocational guidance etc, c) Elimination of discrimination and all forms of violence against women and girl child.

The policy also provides for economic empowerment through poverty eradication, micro credit programmes, training of women to facilitate them in playing efficient role in agriculture and industry. The social empowerment of women is facilitated through effective provisions of Education, Health, Nutrition, Drinking water and Sanitation, gender sensitization etc. Elimination of all forms of violence against women, physical and mental, whether at domestic or societal levels, including those arising from customs, traditions and accepted practices.

The effective implementation of the policy at all levels can be a gigantic step for women development and can set an example for other countries in South Asia.


Empowerment of women is a gradual and complicated process. It involves changing the way of thinking of the whole society. From long time it has been stamped on the minds of the people that women are inferior to men. It is not easy to change the stubborn attitude of the people. In rural India, Women have inadequate access to education, health facilities, healthy diet etc.

In India gradually the percentage of working women is rising. Only by contributing towards income of the family the women can get rid of the status of “burden”.

Entrepreneur women can positively contribute to attain the goal of women empowerment. Entrepreneurship provides women for what she is longing for – control over the resources and power of decision making. Such women can help in poverty alleviation by providing job opportunities for many other deserving women.

Surveys have proved that a large percentage of educated but not trained women are present in the country. Such women can be given training in a specific field like making homemade papads or pickles, handicrafts and many such things and can start their own small enterprise.

Self-employment is a blessing for poor and deserving women as sufficient job opportunities are not available in the country. In small sector, the women may be owner of the enterprise may be a manager or controller or may be a worker in the enterprise.

Tenth plan is initiating women empowerment by implementing specific strategies like such social environment would be created by providing necessary services so that women would be proficient to utilize their potential, To make the women economically self-reliant, proper training would be provided to them. Equal rights for the women would be provided so that there is no social, political discrimination against her.

In the present scenario, where phenomenal advancements are occurring in each and every sphere, women empowerment has become crucial for alleviating poverty and procuring over all growth.

We can not abscond the fact that Women’s rights are human rights and should be treated as such. .The fact that women’s rights need to be safeguarded in every country of the world cannot be overemphasized. In a historic decision, the Rajasthan government is changing the service rules to punish employees who are found guilty of torturing their wives. As reported in a national daily, the punishment could involve sacking and action would correspond the crime, with punishments including suspension and stoppage of increments.

A small step forward in terms of marriage was taken when the Hindu Marriage Act was enacted in 1955. The term Hindu in this case includes Buddhists, Jains, Sikhs and their denominations. Several laws have been enacted including the Child Marriage Restraint Act of 1929 and the current Special Marriage Act,1954 which governs civil marriages. In this Act, for a boy and girl to get married they must have completed 21 and 18 years of age respectively. Bigamy is prohibited in this Act and each party is expected to give consent to the marriage. For a civil marriage, three witnesses are necessary. Progressive laws such as these protect the woman. Under the Islamic law, marriage is considered a contract and a nikaah is performed with several do’s and don’ts. The Parsis are governed by the Parsi Marriage and Divorce Act, 1936. Christians are governed by the Christian Marriage Act, 1872 and the marriage usually takes place in a church.

The report on the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW) released by the Government recently mentions the steps taken by it to contain the negative impact of restructuring of the economy that India has embarked upon. The Government of India made special efforts to increase its support for social sectors and started a number of schemes aimed at the poor, particularly poor women and women in the informal sector. These include the Rashtriya Mahila Kosh and the Mahila Samakhya programs.

Keeping in line with the governmentýs policy on equal opportunity, there are 65 women in senior positions in the Indian Foreign Service around the world. For the first time after Independence the highest post in the Foreign Service, is to be occupied by a female foreign secretary, Chokila Iyer. It is commendable that despite various hurdles and mindsets, the Government has managed to ensure equal career opportunities for women.

The government has taken a number of steps and enacted a number of legislations to protect and safeguard women and ensure that their rights are not abused. One such measure is the Maternity Benefits Act, 1961.


We propose the following next steps for moving forward the agenda on measuring women’s empowerment:

1. Development of a framework of domains or dimensions that can be applied across settings would be the natural next step for building on the strengths of the existing literature on the conceptualization of empowerment. Procedures for determining indicators for each domain, at different levels of aggregation, and across contexts, should also be developed. This effort would move the measurement of women’s empowerment agenda forward considerably by allowing for greater specification of exactly what aspect of empowerment-i.e. which dimension-is of interest, and realistic specifications of the type of change that can be expected over a specific period of time, and given specific interventions. It would also move forward efforts to develop context-specific measures that more closely resemble what they are meant to measure and reduce the reliance on proxy measures.

2. Better, more coordinated efforts at data collection are needed. For example, the process component of women’s empowerment cannot be effectively captured in any measurement scheme without the availability of data across time. Attention to process also requires a discussion of the appropriate time periods for data collection of various types of indicators. At the aggregate level, a broader range of more sophisticated, gender- disaggregated data are needed with regard to the labor force, market conditions, legal and political rights, political and social processes. At the household level, data need to be more frequently collected for important, but relatively under-utilized indicators such as time use or violence against women.

3. Greater attention to measuring women’s empowerment at “meso” levels is required along with efforts at documenting the impact of program and policy interventions. For programmatic and policy evaluation, existing models of monitoring and evaluation that are effective need to be tapped, and their adequacy for women’s empowerment as an outcome or intermediary process should be assessed. At a minimum, quasi-experimental evaluation designs and the collection of baseline and endline data must be considered in implementing programs aimed at empowering women. Measurement of institutional and normative change in communities requires new and innovative approaches. One approach to consider is the business school model of case studies. Documentation through narratives which are then analyzed using qualitative techniques would be another option. Exploration of the work on collective action may also provide further guidance. This is clearly an area where a review of lessons learned from related efforts and cross- disciplinary approaches would be helpful.

4. Greater interdisciplinary engagement is necessary to develop indicators and approaches that capture the key elements of women’s empowerment, have scientific merit, and acceptability among important stakeholders. Although at this stage we have drawn only from literature that has been at the core of the discourse on women’s empowerment, it is clear that continued efforts at moving this work forward would benefit from drawing on a wide range of disciplines. Moreover, based on what we reviewed from sociology, demography, economics, and anthropology, it is clear that there is overlap, but not much interaction across disciplines. Further interdisciplinary engagement would greatly facilitate the task of translating the current consensus on conceptualization to the actual measurement of women’s empowerment.


As UN Secretary General Kofi Annan has stated, “Gender equality is more than a goal in itself. It is a precondition for meeting the challenge of reducing poverty, promoting sustainable development and building good governance.”

In a globalizing world, gender equality and empowerments of women are vital tools-to achieve sustainable developments of societies, and are even admitted by the fools!

Still, the violence towards women is an epidemic against which no country is immune-

And today, we face the greater challenges of human rights and a non-melodious tune!

In the arena of politics, the poor are excluded from governance, regardless of the gender- And women are victims of other people’s decisions ‘Cause they are assumed to be tender! So the entire spectrum of women’s roles to combat poverty, hunger, and disease- Need to be re-examined under the new Millennium lights before the roles decease! Impacts of modern conflicts now affect the global women and girls without a doubt- But they’re neither initiators nor prosecutors of conflicts, or matching game of shout! Determined efforts must be taken to end the impunity surrounding this lamentable claw- And the perpetrators must be brought to justice, and told that they are not above the law!

Only through action to remedy discrimination against women can the vision of India’s independence – an India where all people have the chance to live health and productive lives – be realized.

Complete Assistance in the preparation for the implementation of the SMR/CR can be obtained from us at Complaince Consultant Where we have experience in the banking sector from 2015/2016.

Source by Ashok Priyadarshi Nayak

Neuro-Pharmacognosy: Is It Nature’s Answer For Neuropathy?

Neuropathy literally means sick nerves. There are a number of different reasons why people develop neuropathy. Neuropathy quite commonly is associated with diabetes, vitamin deficits, inflammation of the nerves and toxins that poison the nerves. We have discussed many of the conditions that cause nerves to become sick in patients in other articles. Patients suffering from the signs and symptoms of neuropathy experience pain, burning, numbness and other odd sensations known as paresthesias most often starting in the feet and progressing throughout the rest of the body. The pain and other symptoms can be debilitating and incapacitating regardless of the reason for the neuropathy.

The nervous system in higher animals like humans is a highly complex collection of specialized cells known as neurons. Neurons have several unique features, including a wire-like process known as an axon. The axon functions very much like an electrical wire and it carries encoded electrical signals known as nerve impulses throughout the body. Just like a copper wire, the nerve axon has insulation around it known as myelin. Unlike a copper wire, a nerve cell and its wire-like axon is living tissue. The neuron contains all the necessary cellular machinery to produce energy, maintain itself and generate energy to support its function of transmitting and receiving electrical signals. Each neuron is an electrochemical marvel and is in essence a living battery. This amazing communication network occurs at the microscopic level and consumes incredible amounts of energy to function properly.

The myelin insulation surrounding the nerve axon is also a living tissue and the nerve cell and its myelin cell partners are intimately arranged to maintain and support one another.

The nervous system typically does a remarkable job of sending and receiving formation from various parts of the body and acts both as a sensor system to monitor what is going on in the body and also as an effector system which drives necessary changes in the body based on the input from the sensors.

Because of its complexity the nervous system and its supporting myelin cells is vulnerable to the slightest disruption in metabolism. The axons are like a microscopic spider’s web yet they travel great distances within the body. They can become dys-regulated very easily by trauma or compression.

Think of the nervous system as a living, delicate, vulnerable communications network that consumes extraordinary amounts of energy for proper function and maintenance. It is no wonder that the nervous system is susceptible to injury, illness, metabolic abnormalities, immune problems and many other afflictions that can make it sick and malfunction.

Malfunctioning of the peripheral nervous system occurs frequently and when this happens people develop the cardinal symptoms of poly-neuropathy.

Despite the fact that poly-neuropathy is one of the most common diseases of the peripheral nervous system, there are few FDA approved drugs available to treat it. Many patients that try traditional prescription medication for relief of their neuropathy symptoms are disappointed with the results.

Too often newer drugs in the research pipeline appear promising, but fail due to unwanted side effects. The research and data obtained from failed drug development experiments can sometimes be applied to herbal medicine where natural substances may work in a similar manner as artificial chemicals, but with less harsh side effects. The scientific study of natural substances that may mimic artificial drugs is known as Pharmacognosy. When this knowledge is applied to the nervous system we call it Neuropharmacognosy. You can translate this as the study of the pharmacology of natural substances that may influence the function of the nervous system. There are a number of natural substances that may mimic the pharmacology of drugs used to treat neuropathy. We have discussed them in other articles, but we will review them together here.

Based on experimental data on nerve function and disease a number of broad classes of chemicals may have theoretical application in the relief of symptoms of neuropathy.

It appears when nerves become sick that raising a chemical known as GABA may calm down irritable and inflamed nerves and provide relief for people struggling with the symptoms of neuropathy. You can think of GABA as a brake pedal that slows down the symptoms of neuropathy. There is research that suggest the herbs valerian root and lemon balm may increase GABA thus applying the body’s brake on run away nerve pain. Valerian root may block an enzyme known as GABA-T that breaks down and neutralizes GABA in the nervous system. By blocking the breakdown of GABA, valerian root may prolong the braking effect of GABA on the nerve and slow down neuropathy symptoms. Lemon Balm appears to increase the effect of GABA in a slightly different way. Rather than blocking the breakdown of GABA, Lemon Balm may stimulate an enzyme known as GAD which is responsible for building GABA. So the braking action of GABA on the sick nerve is supported by the increased production of this neurotransmitter

If GABA acts like the body’s brake on a runaway nervous system, Glutamate is the nerve’s gas pedal. Studies suggest that injured nerves become hyper-sensitive because Glutamate is released after the nervous system is irritated. This has the effect of sensitizing the nerve and contributing to the signs and symptoms of neuropathy. There are two potentially important herbs that may block the effects of Glutamate on the nervous system in neuropathy. The first is Theanine a protein derived from green tea. Theanine is believed to act as a Glutamate analog. This means that Theanine is processed by the body like Glutamate, but does not have the nerve stimulating effects of Glutamate. Think of Theanine as a blank bullet that has the net effect of reducing the actions of Glutamate. The other herb that may reduce the excitatory effects of Glutamate, is Magnolia Bark. Magnolia Bark is believed to bind to a specific Glutamate receptor and block it. This suggests that Magnolia Bark is a specific antagonist to Glutamate and might be a more specific way to take-the-foot-off-the-gas-pedal in nerves damaged by neuropathy.

In keeping with our car analogy, if GABA is the brake on the nerve in neuropathy and Glutamate acts like the gas pedal, a third chemical known as Glycine might be thought of as the transmission. Glycine slows the nervous system down. Think of shifting the nerve into low gear. Glycine down shifts the nerve in neuropathy directly thus slowing down and inhibiting painful transmission of nerve signals, but also it also may indirectly compete with Glutamate. The mechanism by which Glycine might provide relief to patients suffering from neuropathy is a little less direct. If a patient would take a large dose of Glycine, the nerves would slow down. This effect would not last long however, because in the nervous system Glycine is carried away from the nerve by what is known as a Glycine Transporter. The Glycine Transporter has the net effect of getting rid of Glycine which effectively shifts the nervous system back into high gear. This Glycine Transporter system is so effective that it renders Glycine as a treatment for neuropathy impractical. Because of the Glycine Transporter, the nerve simply cannot keep enough Glycine in the nerve to slow down the function of a hypersensitive nerve in a meaningful way. However there are substances which may inhibit the Glycine Transporter and this appears to be a promising way to enhance the suppression of nerve hyper-excitability such as occurs in neuropathy. The herb Prickly Ash Bark appears to be a meaningful Glycine Transporter Inhibitor. Prickly Ash has a long history of use for relief of pain. Likewise the naturally occurring compound Sarcosine is a known Glycine Transporter inhibitor. Both of these naturally occurring substances appear to be candidates for the relief of the signs and symptoms of neuropathy.

Another pathway that may be exploited for neuropathy relief is the endogenous cannabinoid receptor system. This system is activated by marijuana and is believed to suppress pain at the higher levels of the nervous system. The receptors of the endogenous cannabinoid system can be activated for pain relief without producing a “high” and the side effects associasted with marijuana drug use by certain breakdown products of fatty acids in the nervous system. Substances that block the enzyme fatty acid amide hydrolase or FAAH appear to activate the endogenous cannabinoid system and are currently being investigated for the treatment of neuropathic type pain. There appears to be naturally occurring FAAH inhibitors in Red Clover and the herb MACA. This suggests that these herbs through their potential to modulate the activity of the enzyme FAAH may be capable of activating the endogenous cannabinoid system and providing relief from neuropathic pain.

Finally with particular reference to neuropathy associated with diabetes, the Protein Kinase C or PKC enzyme and its relationship with T-Type Calcium Channels may be therapeutic targets. It appears that elevated blood glucose unregulates PKC in diabetic nerves. PKC appears to drive specific calcium channels in diabetic nerves known as T-Type Calcium Channels. These changes are believed to drive hyper-sensitivity and excitability at least in nerves affected by diabetic neuropathy.

Chelidonium Majus is an herbal remedy that may modulate PKC. The alkaloid chelerythrine found in this herb is a potent antagonist of Protein Kinase C. This suggests a possible benefit of this herb in polyneuropathy. While generally safe some reports of liver toxicity associate with Chelidonium Majus appear in the medical literature.

Picrorhiza Kurroa is an herb that contains the phytochemical Apocynin. At least one study suggests that apocynin prevented or markedly reduces the up-regulation of Cav3.1 and Cav3.2 T-Type Calcium Channels. This suggests that Picrorhiza Kurroa may be able to down regulate the over expression of T-Type Cav3.2 Calcium channels believed to contribute to the hyper-excitability of nerves seen in diabetic neuropathy.

A final note and warning about using internet information to try to treat a medical condition. Don’t do it! The use of this article is provided solely for patients to discuss the contained information with their licensed healthcare provider. Herbal treatments while generally safe can have unwanted or unpredictable side effects. Only a licensed practitioner that is familiar with your specific healthcare condition can safely diagnose and advise you about treatment for your particular condition. Always consult with and inform your doctor before making additions or changes to your treatment regime.

Complete Assistance in the preparation for the implementation of the SMR/CR can be obtained from us at Complaince Consultant Where we have experience in the banking sector from 2015/2016.

Source by George Kukurin D.C.

The History of the Sebewaing, Michigan Sugar Factory

One of the men destined to join the ranks of Michigan’s pioneer sugar barons was John C. Liken. He was nearly 70 years old when the idea struck him and already rich beyond the dreams he probably had when he carved barrel staves for a living as an indigent immigrant in New York more than fifty years earlier. By 1900, he operated a big business in a small town that referred to him as the town father because his enterprise created the jobs that brought people to the town.

His annual sales during the years preceding 1900, in modern terms, equated to about $7.5 million. In a combination of enterprises that employed two hundred people, he operated four saw mills primarily engaged in manufacturing barrel staves, many of which he shipped to Germany, two flour mills, a major retail outlet for hardware, dry goods, groceries, and drugs which in 1884 employed nine clerks.

Liken’s enterprises were headquartered in a small town in Michigan’s “thumb”. The town was Sebewaing, a small collection of rustic homes nestled on the east shore of the Saginaw Bay some twenty-five miles northeast of Bay City. Its residents were day laborers who worked at one of Liken’s establishments or on one of the surrounding farms, or fished in the great Saginaw Bay that lapped the shores within walking distance of the town.

Sebewaing borrowed its name from the Chippewa word for crooked creek and some of its wealth from the abundant fishing in the bay. Not long before the 19th century came to a close, nearby forests fell to swift axes, making room for German settlers who quickly set about the twin tasks of removing stumps and planting crops.

Liken, a native of Lower Saxony in northwestern Germany met Wallburga Kunkle, the woman who would become his wife, in Binghamton, New York. She was a native of Bavaria and bore the name of a canonized nun who traveled to Germany from England in 748 to perform good works. St. Wallburga became the patron saint of plagues, famines and a host of other discomforts, including dog bites. John Liken had arrived in Binghamton after working for his passage aboard a sailing vessel.

After the birth of their fourth child, Emma, in 1864, who joined her siblings, Mary, born in 1856, Hannah born in 1858, and Charles, born in 1859, John and Walburga moved the family to Sebewaing, a Lutheran settlement that was attracting fishermen, farmers and timber men. The town’s population upon his arrival in 1865 was insufficient to proclaim it a village, but with the arrival of John Liken, that was about to change. He established a sawmill where he made barrel staves. Later, he would develop retail outlets, a creamery, granaries, and ships, incorporating in one person a source for all the goods and services required by the local farming community. The cream and crops, he placed on boats and shipped some thirty miles along the Saginaw Bay shoreline to Bay City, a bustling and growing city where the daily demand for groceries grew apace with its burgeoning population. In was in this connection, shipping, that he became acquainted with ship owner Captain Benjamin Boutell and it was through Captain Boutell that he would learn about sugar opportunities.

The hamlet grew into a village and the town folk began to think of Liken as the town father. Having brought two daughters and a son into the community, who like their father were all of good form, good health, and good cheer, it wasn’t unexpected that the Likens began to add substantially to the population. Mary took for a husband, Richard Martini and a few years later, Hannah allowed a youthful Christian Bach to turn her head (In later times, Christian adopted his middle name, Fred as his given name of preference. He appears in the Michigan sugar chronicles authored by Daniel Gutleben as C.F. Bach.) Charles and his wife, Elizabeth settled into the community to take up management of his father’s affairs.

John Liken had departed his Oldenburg home at the age of eighteen after completing a four-year apprenticeship in the cooperage trade. He would have known of sugar beets because of that experience and certainly would have been aware that men from his homeland had been enjoying some success with them in Michigan’s Bay County where three factories were then in operation and one more was underway and yet another was under construction in Saginaw.

Altogether, a total of eleven beet factories would soon pour sugar and profits into Michigan towns if one believed the hoopla created by railroads and others who would profit from the construction of factories. The excitement that had been stirring farmers and investors across the state seeped into Sebewaing. Liken saw no need to drum up support by the usual methods, holding town meetings, enlisting editors of local newspapers, hiring bands and front men to call upon the farmers. He was convinced of the need for a beet sugar factory and since a good portion of the local wealth resided in his coffers, he saw no need to persuade others to take up the cause. The Likens possessed sufficient resources to build a factory.

He formed an ad hock committee consisting of his son Charles, Richard Henry Martini, the husband of his daughter Hannah, and daughter Mary’s husband, Christian Fred Bach. All three had held important positions in Liken’s enterprises for many years and all were in their late 30’s, thus steeped in experience. In addition, the three resided next to one another on Center Street in Sebewaing, with Martini at Number 69, Charles next door at 68, and Bach at Number 67, thus the trio could convene at leisure and without formality. Should he and his committee approve the idea, the plan would go forward without the usual sale of stock to community members. It did not require a great amount of research on the part of the committee. They had plenty of arable land at their disposal. The Liken family controlled one thousand acres on their own account that combined with others, eliminated a need for a rail line to convey beets to a factory situated on Lake Huron’s shore. They had the financial capacity.

John C. had been generous. Each of his daughters and his son enjoyed full-time servants in their homes and each was well enough off to invest in the new sugar company on their own account and each had demonstrated managerial ability over a long period of time. They had every attribute needed for success in the new industry save one…experience in sugarbeets. News of the activity in Liken’s headquarters leaked into the community at large and inspired some farmers to plant beets, although a completed factory was nearly two years in the future. Those beets, when ready for market, were shipped to Bay City for processing.

Thinking to add the missing ingredient to an otherwise perfect equation for success, John Liken invited Benjamin Boutell and a few of his trusted friends to join in the endeavor. As a consequence, in a short time Liken learned first-hand, how the camel’s nose under the tent fable came into existence. Boutell, no doubt delighted that his expertise was in greater demand than his money, quickly enlisted men of wealth and experience. Among them was John Ross, who would soon become treasurer of the German-American Sugar Company, the last of four beet sugar factories built in Bay County. Next, came lumbermen Frederick Woodworth, William Smalley and William Penoyar, and a ship owner named William Sharp. When men of the stature of Ben Boutell and Penoyar signaled their interest, the floodgates opened; more men of wealth clamored for a stake in the new company. A pair of Saginaw attorneys Watts S. Humphrey and Thomas Harvey climbed aboard as did George B. Morley, legendary grain dealer and banker. Rasmus Hanson, a wealthy lumberman from Grayling, and future president of the German-American Sugar Company, bought in as did William H. Wallace, a quarry operator in nearby Bay Port.

Unwittingly, Liken in attracting investors from Saginaw and Bay City, brought together two distinct groups which could be described as two separate circles of influence. Boutell’s circle consisted of Bay County investors, Woodworth, Ross, Smalley, Sharp and Penoyar. George Morley’s circle included James MacPherson, Humphrey, Harvey, and William H. Wallace, all Saginaw residents, although Wallace was a native of nearby Port Hope and had been a long term resident of Bay Port, a village snugging the shoreline thirteen miles northeast of Sebewaing. In the wings was Ezra Rust, a wealthy Saginaw resident who had won a fortune in the lumber industry. While all of the Bay County investors had lumber interests, of the Saginaw group only MacPherson had a lumber background. The two circles would take up the sport of in-fighting once the new company got underway.

Representatives of what amounted to three distinct groups, Boutell’s Bay City contingent, Morley’s Saginaw faction, and John Liken’s family, gathered in Watts Humphrey’s Saginaw office in July 1901 to take up the matter of organization. Humphrey’s fame would come not from sugarbeet processing but from the fact that his then 12-year old son, George M. Humphrey, would one day achieve stature as the Secretary of the Treasury under President Dwight D. Eisenhower, serving from 1953 until 1957.

Wasting no time, the organizers had at hand, four representatives of construction firms specializing in building beet processing factories. They were Fuehrman & Hapke, E. H. Dyer, Kilby Manufacturing, and Oxnard Construction. It was expected that as soon as the shares were taken up by the attendees, a contract would be awarded to one of the four bidders. To Benjamin Boutell and his Bay City group, there was only one bid of any interest to them and that was the one from Kilby Manufacturing for $900,000. The price was a hefty $1,500 per ton of beet slicing capability, nearly double the $850 per ton price tag of the Essexville factory and almost $600 more per ton than the price for the German-American Sugar Company factory that was currently under construction. Oxnard’s bid of slightly more than $1,800 per ton (including, as usual, a Steffens process) and Dyer’s next to the lowest bid of $1,416 per ton were beaten out by Fuehrman & Hapke’s winning bid of $1,320 per ton for a total price of $792,000.

The first order of business called for the election of officer and directors, a normally placid affair when the company founders knew one another as well as did the gathering in Humphrey’s office. Representatives of each of the three main shareholder groups secured positions. Bay City lumberman, W. C. Penoyar was given the presidency, while Sebewaing’s Christian Bach took on the vice-presidency, and the Saginaw group saw William Baker and Thomas Harvey took the secretary and treasurer seats. Benjamin Boutell and William Wallace joined the executive committee. At the top of the agenda was the matter of deciding on the winning bid for the factory’s construction, which would be, as usual, a full turnkey operation. That’s when the temporary alliance between Bay City, Huron County, and Saginaw County investors fractured.

Boutell’s crowd, said the low bid made no difference, they would accept none other than the one submitted by Kilby. To the Saginaw group, this was tantamount to drawing a line in the sand. They believed firmly in awarding the contract to the lowest bidder. Accordingly, the Sebewaing-Saginaw representatives who controlled three of the officer positions, ignoring the fact that Boutell and his friends controlled 45 percent of the company and that a member of their faction just secured the presidency, gave the nod to Fuehrman & Hapke. Boutell and company recoiling from the suggestion that anyone except Kilby would build a factory in which they had invested, cancelled their stock subscriptions, resigned their positions and withdrew from the board of directors.

When the dust settled, Boutell and his co-investors were out and the Saginaw contingent held the controlling interest at 55 percent with control divided between the Morley and Rust families. The Rust family headed by Ezra Rust would leave its mark on the City of Saginaw in the form of a city park and a major thoroughfare bearing its name. Ezra’s confidence in the sugar industry may have stemmed from a stint he served as an engineer in a Cuban sugar mill during his youth. Morley held 5,000 shares in his own name, while various members of the Rust family held 4,000 shares. Family members and friends of John Liken held 45 percent.

The sudden withdrawal of Bay City investors necessitated a second election. The presidency went to Thomas Harvey. John Liken’s son-in-law, Christian Bach, retained the vice-president’s post and a seat at the director’s table. Liken’s son, Charles, accepted an appointment as treasurer but did not win a board seat. William F. Schmitt, a minor stockholder and Christian Bach’s sister Emma’s suitor, became secretary. In time and after having been tested by fire, he would prove that his advancement was owed entirely to his skill, not to his relationship to the Bach family. In 1906, he took charge of the Sebewaing factory which he then guided for six years before leaving the company for a senior position with Continental Sugar Company. Directors, in addition to Harvey and Christian Bach, included William H. Wallace, Watts Humphrey, George Morley, James MacPherson, who replaced Benjamin Boutell, and Richard Martini.

The appointed contractor for the factory’s construction, Henry Theodore Julius Fuehrman, normally addressed as Jules, arrived from New York where he had constructed a similar factory at Lyons and before that, Pekin, Illinois. He appeared in September for the groundbreaking ceremony. With him was his partner, Theodore Hapke who won high regard from area farmers of German extraction because of his knowledge of sugarbeets and his ability to explain the subject in the mother tongue.

Fuehrman had been closely involved with the construction of a beet factory in Grand Island, Nebraska, which to his good fortune happened to be in the place after Germany that he called home. He was the only son of Henry and Tulia Fuehrman of Brunswick, Germany. Beginning at the age of fourteen, he served an apprenticeship in the mason’s trade. After deciding to prepare himself for the duties of an architect, he devoted himself to the study of architecture in different polytechnic institutions throughout his native land. When twenty years of age, he entered the Germany Army, serving one year, and in 1882, he emigrated to America where after spending two years in Chicago he settled in Grand Island. There he accepted a number of commissions, including the design of the city hall, a church, a university, and eventually the Oxnard beet sugar factory in Grand Island.

Fuehrman’s success attracted the prestigious architectural firm of Post & McCord, the firm that built the roof over Madison Square Garden and the large iron frames for the skyscrapers that dotted Broadway and Wall Street and in 1931 would construct the world’s tallest skyscraper, the Empire State Building. Post & McCord partnered with the equally prestigious American Bridge Company, thus the Sebewaing factory’s formation was destined to be of solid construction. With William H. Wallace serving on the board of directors, the question of whether the foundation was going to be made of solid stones or the new building material, concrete, was resolved without discussion. The stones came from Wallace’s quarry, thirteen miles distant where they were carved by his expert workmen into squares that conformed to the architect’s specifications. Crushed stone from the same source made roadways for hauling equipment and later, beets to the factory. Already the community was enjoying the fruits of the presence of a sugar factory, improved roads and a richer economy as workers discovered gainful employment on the many work crews needed to fashion a factory that would soon win recognition as one of the largest of its kind in the nation.

Emile Brysselbout, Fuehrman and Hapke’s newest partner, was also on hand. Brysselbout’s credentials included the recently constructed Charlevoix, Michigan sugarbeet factory and he had supervised the construction of the Essexville factory.

The cornerstone was laid on October 21, 1901 but the absence of qualified engineers delayed construction. Experienced construction engineers had become a premium in a nation that suddenly could not have enough beet sugar factories. Twenty-five beet sugar factories were constructed between 1900 and 1905 of which ten were in Michigan. Adding to the difficulties was Fuehrman’s absence. He had departed for Dresden, Ontario to construct a similar factory for Captain James Davidson, a Bay City magnate who had decided to dedicate a portion of his wealth to the beet industry.

By appearances, Davidson’s contract held greater importance for Fuehrman than did Sebewaing’s. William Wallace, noted for always taking a firm hand where one was needed, approached Brysselbout with the insistence that Joseph Eckert be hired. Eckert was a man with a can-do reputation and one who would tolerate no obstacles in the path to his goal. Eckert had just finished an assignment at Mendall Bialy’s West Bay City Sugar Company where he had increased productivity more than one-third.

Gutleben relates that when Eckert arrived in Sebewaing, he found nature busy at the task of reclaiming the site. Weeds and wild flowers occupied the space intended for a factory. The few columns that had been erected on Wallace’s stone foundations were poised as if ready to fall to earth. Worse, there was no gear on hand to correct the steelwork in place or to install the balance of it. Fuehrman promised a steam engine but its delivery would have to wait until the steel erection work in Dresden was finished. It was April. The farmers wanted to know if they should plant a beet crop. “Plant ’em!” exclaimed Eckert who then placed an order for the delivery of a steam engine to be charged against Fuehrman & Hapke’s account. Wallace backed the credit. Fuehrman’s complexion turned the color of spoiled liver during his next visit; he fired his innovative engineer for insubordination. Wallace accompanied by Brysselbout turned the decision around in a hurried meeting with Fuehrman.

One of the advantages of having Brysselbout and Eckert on staff was their ability to draw men of similar skill. Brysselbout, inspired by Eckert’s enthusiasm and unquestioned role as chief project engineer after Fuehrman’s failed effort to fire him, secured experienced and highly educated operators, men like Hugo Peters, an 1898 graduate of Leipzig University who would become Sebewaing’s first factory superintendent. James Dooley soon followed. He carried a reputation for practical application of scientific principles and a cool head during emergencies. Eckert attracted outstanding engineers such as Eugene Stoeckly and Pete Kinyon, a master at erecting the steal grids that became the frames for the factories. Nearby farmers, long experienced with neighbors William Wallace, “Bill” to all, and John Liken, both hard driving can-do business leaders, had full confidence that a factory would stand in their midst at harvest time, as promised. They set about planting the second sugarbeet crop in Huron County with results that would prove fortuitous for themselves and for the investors.

When the trees began to blaze red and orange and cool dawn breezes dried the morning dew before farmers stepped from their doors, the county’s first sugarbeet crop waited in neat soldiery rows for men, women and even children to approach them. A lifter, a device designed to loosen the beet from earth’s hold, operated by the farmer, would proceed across the field at a walking pace. Harvesters would follow, pulling the beets from the ground then knocking two of them together to loosen soils and then casting them into a pile to await topping. Eventually, automated motor driven machines would perform the task, a task enhanced by pre-topping and then cleaning of the beets via a shaking system and dumped into waiting trucks. But for now, it was brute work.

On October 10, 1902, it was done. The main building sixty-seven by 258 feet and five floors comprising approximately sixty thousand square feet, made of brick and filled with the most modern equipment available to the industry, opened for business. In a town where the average home consisted of fewer than seven hundred square feet of space, it was an awesome presence. It was one of the grandest and largest buildings constructed in the American Midwest up to that time.

It was agreed that only one man in all of Huron County deserved the honor of delivering the first load of beets to the factory, the man whose dream set off the chain of events that led to the magnificent building now standing at the end of the town’s main street. He was John C. Liken. His family had gathered round two months before on August 9, to celebrate his seventieth birthday and now at an age beyond that which men commonly set aside for the cessation of physical labor, he guided a team of four horses drawing a gaily decorated wagon brimming with sugarbeets onto the scales. The Liken family, standing beside the constructors, Bill Wallace and a contingent from Saginaw, applauded the advance of the high-stepping horses and the contented Mr. Liken. Within the week, Hugo Peter conducted an operational test, allowing only water through the factory to test the readiness as well as the harmony of the equipment. After making a few adjustments to correct weaknesses detected during the water test, he ordered the slicing of beets to begin on October 27.

The farmers delivered beets containing 13.23 percent sugar of which they harvested nearly seven tons to the acre. According to Gutleben’s history, the factory yielded more than 91,000 hundredweight of sugar on an extraction rate of seventy-one per cent giving it returns greater than from the West Bay City’s factory, the Essexville factory, the Bay City Sugar Company and certainly Benton Harbor, Kalamazoo, and the first year of operation at the Caro factory. The operational results mirrored those of the Kilby built Alma factory. Financial results, however, were far greater because the 48,250 tons of beets delivered by Sebewaing growers exceeded by two-hundred fifty percent the 19,100 tons delivered by Alma growers for that factory’s first campaign. Sebewaing growers delivered the greatest number of beets delivered to a single factory up until that time, loud evidence of the confidence Huron County farmers placed in Wallace, Liken, and Bach, confidence, as events revealed, that was not misplaced. Estimated profits for Sebewaing’s first year of operation approximated $140,000, 26 percent on sales and providing a 17 percent return on investment.

Soon, two important personages representing the American Sugar Refining Company called on Bill Wallace. They were Henry Niese, head of operations and W. B. Thomas from the company’s treasury department (Thomas would become president of American Sugar Refining on December 20, 1907 following the death of Henry O. Havemeyer earlier that month.). Their mission was to scout candidates for admission to the Sugar Trust. The visit occasioned a significant change in the company’s make-up when Charles B. Warren, a Detroit attorney who represented the interests of the American Sugar Refining Company arrived shortly afterward to offer an investment of $325,000. The company issued an additional thirty-five thousand shares of stock of which he acquired 32,500; other shareholders each increased their stake by approximately 8.3 percent, effectively giving Warren a 50 percent interest in the company with the other half in the hands of the Liken family (24 percent) and Morley’s Saginaw investors (26 percent).

The bloom of youth still graced the cheeks of Charles Beecher Warren when he appeared in Sebewaing like a godsend to drop what would amount to in current dollars nearly seven million dollars in a start-up company managed entirely by local investors. His youth disguised a young man bearing a sound education and a steely resolve to make something of himself. Before his time passed, he would become the US ambassador to two nations (Japan in 1921 and Mexico in 1924), write the regulations for conscription during World War I, head a major law firm and direct the affairs of a number of corporations.

In 1903 when visiting Sebewaing, however, he resembled not so much the power broker and respected lawyer he would become but instead, a pleasant young man with a pocket full of cash. He was fresh from Saginaw where he persuaded the owners of the Carrollton factory to take his cash in exchange for a 60 percent stake in the factory that came into existence when Boutell’s Bay City crowd parted company with the Sebewaing investors. He would, over the course of a few years, dispense more than three and half million dollars in Michigan alone ($60 million in current dollars) while acquiring sugar companies that would immediately report to the New York office of the American Sugar Refining Company-not bad for someone who had been taking rooms in a boarding house situated near Cass Avenue in Detroit in 1900.

His rise to power began six years earlier when he was appointed associate counsel for the US government in hearings before the joint high commission in the Bering Sea controversy with Great Britain. The matter concerned England’s perceived right to harvest seals notwithstanding the United States opinion that extinction would surely follow that practice. By 1900, he was a partner in the law firm of Shaw, Warren, Cady & Oakes a Detroit firm representing a number of banks and manufacturing firms, chief among them the American Sugar Refining Company. A few years hence, he would adopt the title of president of Michigan Sugar Company, a position he would hold for 19 years in addition to the presidency of a sugar company in Iowa and another in Minnesota. During that same time period he returned to the international arena once again where his carefully watched performance won accolades from imminent lawyers in Europe and America. This time, he appeared on behalf of the United States before the Hague tribunal to resolve a dispute between the United States and England concerning North Atlantic fishing rights.

The son of a small town newspaper editor, Robert Warren, he listed Bay City as his birthplace, but because of the nature of his father’s profession, moved from time to time while growing up, always within Michigan. He graduated first from Albion College then attended and graduated from the University of Michigan before attending the Detroit College of Law where he graduated LL.B. At the Detroit College of Law, he studied under Don. M. Dickenson and then joined Dickenson’s firm when he was admitted to the bar in 1893, the year he graduated. A few years later, he joined John C. Shaw and William B Cady in organizing a separate law firm, a firm he would eventually head throughout his career. Early on, displaying an understanding of the value of macro management, he tended to see to the installation of experienced managers and then leave them unmolested as they carried out the day to day requirements of conducting business.

Much as Caro served as a training ground for factory operators, Sebewaing acted as a school for factory managers who were sent throughout America to beet and cane factories owned by American Sugar Refining Company and others. Hugo Peters moved on to Dresden to oversee James Davidson’s operation and then took similar positions in Idaho, Utah, California and even the West Indies. In 1920, Peters turned his attention to spectro-photometric analysis for the US Bureau of Standards, making serious contributions to color analysis. Jim Dooley stayed on as manager at Sebewaing for a few years then headed operations for all of Michigan Sugar Company when it came into existence in 1906. Wilfred Van Duker, Sebewaing’s first chief chemist, dedicated the larger portion of his career to improving cane milling in Hawaii. There, he eventually managed four sugar estates. Richard Henry Martini became General Agricultural Superintendent for Michigan Sugar Company and Henry Pety moved on to Utah for a superintendency before returning to Michigan to manage the Mount Pleasant factory. The Sebewaing factory continued to expand by adding physical structures and equipment in the form of diffusion towers, automated affairs that replaced the older battery operations, evaporators, modern centrifugals, storage bins and other equipment that caused the daily beet slicing capacity to gradually expand from 600 tons per day to more than 5,000 tons per day.


Estimated profits for the first year of operation: Records did not survive. The author determined an estimated profit by applying an estimated selling price of $5.12 for each one hundred pounds to the total hundredweight available for sale and then deducted costs estimated at$3.57 per one hundred pounds.

GUTTLEBEN, Daniel, The Sugar Tramp – 1954 p. 182 concerning purchase of sugar factories by the Sugar Trust, p. 177 concerning organization of Sebewaing Sugar and operating results, printed by Bay Cities Duplicating Company, San Francisco, California

MICHIGAN ANNUAL REPORTS, Michigan Archives, Lansing, Michigan:

Sebewaing Sugar 1903, 1904

Sebewaing Lumber, 1901, 1904

Bay Port Fish, 1901

Saginaw Courier Herald, July 11, 1901 – reporting on the meeting of stockholders of the newly formed Sebewaing Sugar Company.

Portrait and biographical album of Huron County:

John C. Liken, Christian F. Bach, Richard Martini

U.S. Census reports for Sebewaing, 1900, 1910

Complete Assistance in the preparation for the implementation of the SMR/CR can be obtained from us at Complaince Consultant Where we have experience in the banking sector from 2015/2016.

Source by Thomas Mahar

What Are the Types of Trademark?

A trademark is designated by the following symbols:

• ™ (for an unregistered trade mark, that is, a mark used to promote or brand goods)

• â,,  (for an unregistered service mark, that is, a mark â,,  superscript SM used to promote or brand services)

• ® (for a registered trademark)

A new Trademark regime has been introduced in India since September 15, 2003. The new Trade Marks Act, 1999 has many innovative features:

1. Service Marks:

Service marks are marks used in service business where actual goods under the mark are not traded. It is a mechanism available to protect marks used in the service industry. Thus businesses providing services like computer hardware and software assembly and maintenance, restaurant and hotel services, courier and transport, beauty and health care, advertising, publishing, educational and the like are now in a position to protect their names and marks. As service marks are a particular type of trademark, the substantive and procedural rules governing both types of marks are fundamentally the same.

2. Collective Marks:

Marks being used by a group of companies can now be protected by the group collectively. Collective mark is used to inform the public about the particular feature of the product for which the collective mark is used. The owner of such marks may be an association or other public institution or cooperative of which the enterprise is a member. Collective marks are also used to promote particular products which have certain characteristics specific to the producer in a given region.

3. Certification Marks:

Certification marks are used to define standards. The issue of certification marks indicates that the product has gone successfully gone through certain standard of test specified for a particular product. It assures the consumer that the manufacturers have gone through regular process of audit to ensure the standard of production. For example- Toys, Electrical goods, etc. have such marking.

4. Well-known marks:

Marks, which are deemed to be well known, are defined. Such marks will enjoy greater protection. Persons will not be able to register or use marks, which are imitations of well-known trademarks. In order to be a well-known, a trademark need to be known by a relevant section of people which include number of actual or potential customer, people involved in the distribution and business service dealing with the goods or services.


• The difference between Trademarks and Service marks is that Service marks are used by a business house to distinguish their service from other services provide in the same field. Trademark is used to distinguish competing products, not services. Trade marks are affixed to good by means of tag or label but service marks are displayed through advertisement and promotions.

• The difference between the certification mark and the collective mark is that the collective mark is used by a particular enterprise or members of the association while a certification mark may be used by anybody who meets the defined standards.


Unconventional Trademarks are those which get its recognition for it inherently distinctive feature.

Unconventional Trademarks include the following categories:

• Colour Trademark- If a particular colour has become distinctive feature indicating the goods of a particular trader. For example- Red Wine

• Sound Marks- Signs which are perceive by hearing and which is distinguishable by their distinctive and exclusive sound. For example-Musical notes

• Shape of goods, packaging-When shape of goods, packaging have some distinctive feature. For example-Ornamental Lamps

• Smell trademarks-When smell is distinctive and cannot be mistaken with an associated product. For example-Perfumes

Complete Assistance in the preparation for the implementation of the SMR/CR can be obtained from us at Complaince Consultant Where we have experience in the banking sector from 2015/2016.

Source by Pankhipriyam Dutta